The Royal House of Bavaria
House of Wittelsbach
The Luitpoldinger as the origin of the Wittelsbach’s
After Arnulf’s death in 937 King Otto I. gave in 938 the Duchy to Arnulf‘s brother Berthold. Otto I married his brother Heinrich with Arnulf’s daughter Judith and thus justified the later claim of Heinrich, who was by Berthold’s death whilst ignoring the claims of other Luitpoldinger Duke of Bavaria.Arnulf eldest son, Eberhard, had been deposed as Duke 938; the younger, Arnulf (II.), was Count Palatine of Bavaria, built in 940, the Castle Scheyern, and his descendants named themselves after this castle as Counts of Scheyern.
The origins of the Wittelsbach according the genealogy Otto Freiherr von Dungerns
According to the in 1931 published Genealogy by Otto Baron ofDungerns the orgins of the family of the Wittelsbach comes from Count Otto I of Scheyern who in the certificates in the year 1000 as Otto comes de Skyrum is called. Beginning with his son, Otto II. of Scheyern, begins the secured story of the Wittelsbach‘s.
Count Otto II of Scheyern († 1078) was first married with a sister of the Count Meginhard of Reichersbeuern, married; in second marriage with the widowed Countess Haziga.The counts of Scheyern were:
- Otto I of Scheyern (around 1014)
- Otto II. Of Scheyern († 1078)
- Eckhard I of Scheyern († before 11.05.1091)
- Otto V, Count of Wittelsbach († 1156), Count Palatine of Bavaria
- Count Otto VIII. of Scheyern (around 1117-1183)
Dukes of Bavaria
In 1110 Count Otto V. of Wittelsbach was given the dignity Count Palatine in Bavaria, the second dignity after Count Leopold of Babenberg. Otto I. Count Palatine of Bavaria, who had distinguished himself at Friedrich I Barbarossa Italy trains, received after the deposition of Heinrich the Lion in 1180 the duchy of Bavaria, which he henceforth called himself Otto I of Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria. The duchy he received was not was it had once been: it had lost its eastern march, made into a duchy (Austria) in 1156, as well as the march of Styria, the county of Tyrol, the Guelf possessions in Ammergau and Augstgau, and the ecclesiastical Princes were increasingly emancipating themselves, but the position of Duke still provided opportunities for enriching the family, and Otto bought the county of Dachau. At Otto’s death in 1183 his minor son Ludwig succeeded him under the regency of his uncles. In 1185 he inherited the lands of the Burgraves of Regensburg; in 1208, his first cousin Otto, Palatine of Bavaria, was placed under the ban of the Empire for murdering the Emperor Philip of Swabia, the palatinate passed to count Rapoto of Ortenburg, and the ancestral castle of Wittelsbach was razed to the ground in atonement. Philip’s rival and successor Otto IV confirmed the heredity of the duchy of Bavaria for Ludwig and his issue. Under the next Emperor, Ludwig received the investiture in 1214 of the Palatinate of the Rhine, although he did not come into possession until after the marriage of his son Otto with Agnes, daughter of the previous Palatine and niece of Otto IV. The Palatinate remained in the Wittelsbach family after that date Through his 1204 marriage to Ludmilla, widow of Count Albert of Bogen, after the Bogener line of ruler became extinct in 1242 the county bow and its white-blue diamond crest to the Wittelsbach. His son Otto II. was in 1212 as a 6-year-old engaged to the guelf Agnes, the niece of Emperor Otto IV., daughter of the Count Palatine Heinrich and thus heiress to the Palatinate. Well by the later, certainly before 1224 contracted marriage, the golden lion came on a black background as emblem to Bavaria. Ludwig’s son and successor Otto II inherited in 1238 from the counts of Valai, another line of the counts of Scheyern and the only other agnates of the Wittelsbach. During his reign he also incorporated the domains of the counts of Bogen and the counts of Wassenburg into the duchy.
Dukes of Bavaria
1180-1183 Otto I.
1183-1231 Ludwg the Kehlheimer
1231-1253 Otto II.
After the death of Otto II in 1255 emerged in the inheritance between his sons the lines Lower Bavaria and Upper Bavaria with the Palatinate. Both rulers still held the title Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine.
Upper Bavaria with Palatinate
Dukes of Upper Bavaria
1253-1294 Ludwig II. the rigor
1294-1317 Rudolf II. the Stammler
1294-1347 Ludwig IV. the bavarian, since 1314 holy roman King, since 1328 holy roman Emperor
Dukes of Lower Bavaria
1253-1290 Heinrich I.
1290-1312 Otto III, 1305-1308 also King of Hungary, from about 1305-1319 together with Stephan I
1310-1312 together with Otto IV. and Heinrich XIV. (the son of Stephan I.)
1313-1339 partly partioned:
Heinrich XV. (son of Otto III.)
1339-1340 Johann I.
By the treaty of Pavia of 1329, the children of Rudolf received what came to be known as the Palatinate, consisting of three distinct elements:
- the original palatinate on the lower Rhine, as possessed by Hermann von Stahleck (Palatine from 1142 to 1156)
- the territories acquired alter, on the Neckar and the middle Rhine, starting with Konrad of Hohenstaufen (Palatine from 1156 to 1195)
- and the territories in Swabia, inherited by Ludwig II (Palatine from 1253 to 1294) from his nephew Conradin
Rudolf I, founder of the Palatine line left three sons: Adolf, who died before the Pavia treaty but left a minor son Ruprecht II, Rudolf II and Ruprecht. The surviving sons of Rudolf ruled jointly, with Rudolf holding the electorate first, then after his death Ruprecht, and only after his death Ruprecht II. This last had only one son, Ruprecht III, who was elected Emperor in 1400.
Electors of the Palatinate
1353/54-1390 Rupprecht I.
1390-1398 Rupprecht II.
1398-1410 Rupprecht II., from 1400 also holy roman King
Even he could not introduce primogeniture, but in his will he appointed seven of his most trusted advisers to manage the partition among his sons after his death in 1410. A portion of the lands was carved out, the Kurpräcipuum, consisting of Heidelberg, the territories along the Rhine, and part of the Upper Palatinate around Amberg. This portion was to remain attached to the electoral dignity foreve and went to his eldest son Ludwig. The remainder was divided in four equal portions, divided between all four sons.
- Ludwig got the Elecorate and founded the old elctoral line
- Johann got the Upper Palatinate
- Stephan got Simmern and Zweibrücken
- Otto got Mosbach and territory around the Neckar
The Palatinate lines
- electoral line (1410-1559)
- Neumarkt (1410-1448)
- Simmern and Zweibrücken
- Simmern inherited the elctorate in 1559 (1410-1685)
- Lautern (16120-1674)
- Zweibrücken and Veldenz
- Neuburg, inheritiing the elecotrate in 1685, ext. in 1742
- Sulzbach, inheriting the elcorate in 1742, ext. in 1799
- Hippoltstein (1614-1644)
- Landsberg (1604-1681)
- Kleeburg (1604-1731)
- Neuburg, inheritiing the elecotrate in 1685, ext. in 1742
- renamed Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld in 1733, inheriting Bavaria in 1799
- Gelnhausen, became the ducal line in Bavaria in 1799, ext. in 1973
- Veldenz (1543-1694)
- Simmern inherited the elctorate in 1559 (1410-1685)
- Mosbach (1410-1499)
Count Palatines of Neumarkt
Count Palatines of Simmern-Zweibrücken
Ludwig the Black who had received Veldenz and Zweibrücken; ordered in his will his two sons Kaspar and Alexander to rule jointly. After Kaspar’s death Alexander introduced primogeniture, but this did not take hold as a house law since his two sons partitioned the inheritance, the younger one Ruprecht taking Veldenz. Alexander’s older son Ludwig had only one son Wolfgang who became a Protestant and received from the Elector Otto Heinrich the principality of Neuburg (inherited from the Bavarian line after the Landshut succession dispute of 1504-06). He left five sons and, in his will of 1568, gave Neuburg to the eldest, Zweibrücken to the next one, and pensions to the three remaining sons with cities (Sulzbach, Vohenstrauss, Birkenfeld) given as residences; in case of extinction of the eldest line Neuburg was to pass to the next oldest and Zweibrücken to the next oldest, and if one of the three most junior lines was to die out its pension was to be shared among the two others and its residence city to return to the line ruling the region in which it was located. The partition was approved by the Emperor in 1570.
Count Palatines and Duke’s of Zweibrücken
1459-1489 Ludwig I. the black
married to Johanna de Croy
married to Countess Margarete zu Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
1514-1532 Ludwig II.
married to Priness Elisabeth of Hesse
married to Princess Anna of Hesse
Philipp Ludwig inherited Neuburg from his father;he married Anna von Jülich, and divided his lands between his sons: Wolfgang Wilhelm received Neuburg, August received Sulzbach (which had returned to the Neuburg branch), and Johann Friedrich (who died childless) received Hilpolstein.
Wolfgang Wilhelm made claims to the inheritance of the last duke of Jülich, Cleve and Berg in 1609. As son of the eldest living sister of the last duke, he claimed a better right than the daughter of the eldest-born sister, who was married to the Elector of Brandenburg. The agreement of 1614, confirmed in 1666, divided the inheritance: Brandenburg got Cleve, Mark and Ravensberg while Jülich and Berg went to Pfalz-Neuburg. This substantially increased the estates of the Neuburg branch; Düsseldorf became their main residence. Wolfgang Wilhelm, who converted to catholicism, was succeeded by his only son Philipp Wilhelm) who inherited the Electorate from the Simmern line in 1685. Although a family pact of 05.01.1685 in Schwäbisch Hall secured the succession for him, a dispute arose. The Veldenz line claimed the inheritance as being one degree closer to the last Elector, arguing that the right of representation in the Golden Bull of 1356 applied only to place sons before brothers, but for more distant relatives degree came first. This claim did not have much support, as the principle of lineal representation was firmly entrenched. Even less valid were the claims made by Louis XIV. of France on behalf of his sister-in-law, wife of his brother the Duke of Orléans and sister of the previous Elector. Louis XIV, however, had an army, and he used it ruthlessly to enforce his claims. The matter was only settled at the peace of Ryswick in 1697, with Louis XIV. restoring the Palatinate and settling for an indemnity fixed by the Pope as arbiter to 300,000 scudi. Philipp Wilhelm was succeeded in turn by his two sons, and in 1742 the Electorate passed to the Sulzbach line.
Count Palatines of Neuburg, since 1660 also Duke of Jülich and Berg and since 1685 also Electors of the Palatinate
1569-1614 Philipp Ludwig
married to Anna of Jülich-Berg-Kleve
1614-1653 Wolfgang Wilhelm
married first to Princess Magdalene of Bavaria
married second to Countess Palatine Katharina Charlotte of Zweibrücken
married third to Princess Maria Franzsika of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg
1653-1690 Philipp Wilhelm
married to Princess Elisabeth Amalia Magdalena of Hesse-Darmstadt
1690-1716 Johann Wilhelm
married first to Archduchess Maria Anna Josepha of Austria
married second to Princess Anna Maria Luise de Medici
1716-1742 Karl Philipp
married first to Princess Ludwika Karoline Charlotte of Radziwill
married second to Pricness Theresa Katharina Lubomirska
married third (morganatic) to Countess Violante Maria Theresia of Thurn and Taxis
In 1614, August got Sulzbach as a paragium, but it remained under the supremacy of the main line. His son, Christian August, obtained the sovereignty of Palatinate-Sulzbach as the duke in the Neuburgger Main coparision of 1656. In 1742, the main line of the Palatinate-Neubrug bacame extinct in the male line and the branch of Sulzbach, with Karl Theodor, succeeded there. In 1777 the Bavarian Wittelsbachers also became extinct in the male line so that under Karl Theodor the large Wittelsbach countries Palatinate and Bavaria were reunited for the first time in centuries.
Count Palatines of Sulbach, since 1742 also Electors of the Palatinate and Duke’s of Jülich and Berg
married to Princess Hedwig of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf
1632-1708 Christian August
married to Countess Amalie of Nassau-Siegen
1708-1732 Theodor Eustach
married to Princee Marie Eleonore of Hesse-Rotenburg
1732-1733 Johann Christian
married first to Princess Marie Anne Henriëtte Leopoldine de La Tour d’Auvergne
married second to Princess Eleonore of Hesse-Rheinfels-Roenburg
1733-1799 Karl Theodor who in 1777 succeeded as Elector of Bavaria
In 1614 Johann Friedrich got Hilpoltstein, Heideck and Allersberg as deputies from his older brother Wolfgang Wilhelm. As none of his eight children became older than three years he died without an heir in 1644, and Hilpoltstein fell back to Palatinate-Neuburg.
Count Palatines of Hippolstein
1614-1644 Johann Friedrich
married to Princess Sophie Angess of Hesse-Darmstadt
In the division of 1570 Johann I. got Zweibrücken. After his death in 1604, his three son shared the inheritance among themselves: the elder, Johann, inherited Palatinate Zweibrücken, the second, Friedrich Kasimir, received office and Burg Landsberg, while the Amt Kleeburg to the youngest son, Johann Kasimir, went. The eldest born’s line ended in 1661, at which point Zweibrücken passed to the Landsberg line,
Count Palatines and Dukes of Zweibrücken
1570-1604 Johann I.
married to Princess Magdalena of Jülich-Berg-Kleve
1604-1635 Johann II.
married first to Princess Cathérine de Rohann
married second to Countess Palatine Juliane of Palatinate-Simmern
married to Countess Anna Juliane of Nassau-Sarbrücken
In 1604 Friedrich Casimir received office and Burg Landsberg and founded the line Palatinate.-Landsberg. In 1661 this line also inherited Zweibücken after that line had become extinct. As at Duke Friedrich Ludwig death the male descendants from the first marriage had all died and for the children from the morganatic marriage had no succession rights Palatinate-Zweibrücken fell through the inheritance to Karl XI. of Sweden.
Count Palatines of and Dukes of Landsberg
1604-1645 Friedrich Kasimir
married to Princess Emilia Secunda Antwerpia of Orange-Nassau
1645-1681 Friedrich Ludwig, since 1771 also Duke of Zewibrücken
married first to Countess Palatine Juliane Magdalene of Zweibrücken
married second (morganatic) to Maria Elisabeth Hepp
In the division of 1604 Johann Kasimir got Kleeburg. Because of marriage with Katharina Vasa, the sister Gustav II Adolf, he increasingly oriented himself to Sweden. His son Karl X. became in 1654 King of Sweden. He then gave Palatina-Kleebug to his younger brother Adolf Johann. His grandson Gustav Samuel Leopold died in 1731 without Issue. At this point an arrangement between the only surviving branches of the Simmern line (the ruling Neuburg line in the Palatinate and the Birkenfeld line) left Zweibrücken to the Birkenfeld line, now renamed Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, with the rest (Kleeburg, Landsberg) to the Elector.
Count Palatines of Kleeburg
1604-1652 Johann Kasimir
married to Katharina Wasa
1652-1654 Karl I. who in 1654 became King of Sweden
1654-1689 Adolf Johann I.
married first to Elsa Beata Persdotter Brahe
married second to Else Elisabeth Nielsdotter Brahe
1689-1731 Gustav Samuel Leopold, since 1718 also Duke of Zwebücken
married first (divorced) to Countess Palatine Dorothea of Veldenz
married second (morganatic to Countess Luise Dorothea von Hoffmann
Kings of Sweden
1654-1660 Karl X. Gustav
married to Princess Hedwig Eleonora of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp
1660-1697 Karl XI.
married to Princess Ulrike Eleonore of Denmark and Norway
1697-1718 Karl XII.
1718-17210 Ulrica Elenora
married to Prince Friedrich of Hesse-Cassel
In the division of 1570 Otto Heinrich got Sulzbach. He died in 1604 without Issue and this line became thus extinct
Count Palatines and Dukes of Sulzbach
1570-1604 Otto Heinrich
married to Princess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg
In the division of 1570 Friedrich got the domination of the rule Flossenbürg with the markets of Floß and Vohenstrauß as well as the Paltine-neuburg part of the office Parkstein-Weiden. As he had no male Issue this line became exticnt with his death in 1597.
Count Palatines of Zweibrücken-Vohenstrauß-Parkstein
married to Katharina von Liegnietz
Count Palatines of Birkenfeld, since 1734 also Dukes of Zweibrücken
1570-1600 Karl I.
married to Princess Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1600-1669 Georg II.
married first to Countess Dorothea zu Solms-Sonnenwalde
married second (divorced) to Countess Juliane zu Salm-Grumbach
married third to Countess Anna Eisabeth zu Oettingen-Oettingen
1669-1671 Karl II.
married to Countess Margarethe Hedwig zu Hohenlohe-Neunenstein-Weikersheim
1671-1717 Christian II.
married to Countess Katarine Agathe of Rappoltstein
1717-1735 Crhistian III., since 1734 also Duke of Zweibrücken
married to Countess Karoline of Nassau-Saarbrücken
1735-1774 Christian IV.
married morganatic to Marianne Camasse
1774-1795 Karl II. August
married to Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony
1795-1799 Maximilian Joyseph, he succeeded in 1799 as Elector of Bavaria
Palatinate Gelnhausen since 1799 Ducal line in Bavaria
1671-1704 Johann Karl
married first to Countess Palatine Sophoe Amalie of Zweibrücken
married second (morgantic) to Esther Maria von Witzleben
1704-1739 Friedich Bernhard
married to Princess Luise of Waldeck
married to Countess Luise of Salm-Dhaun
married to Countess Palatine Maria Anna of Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken
1837-1838 Oius August
married to Princess Amalie Luise of Arenberg
married to Princess Ludovika of Bavaria
1888-1909 Karl Theodor
married first to Princess Sophie of Saxony
married second to Infanta Marie José of Portugal
1909-1968 Ludwig Wilhelm
married to Princess Eleonore zu Sayn.Wittgenstein-Berleburg
1968-1973 Luitpold Emanuel
1544-1592 Georg Johann I.
married to Princess Anna Maria of Sweden
1592-1634 Geog Gustav
married first to Princess Elisabeth of Württemberg
married second to Coutness Palatine Marie Elisabeth of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
1634-1694 Leopold Ludwig
married to Countess Agate of Hanau-Lichtenberg
In the division of 1410 Otto received the part around Mosbach and Eberbach. Through the choice of Mosbach as a residence, he also founded the line Palatinate-Mosbach. In 1448 Otto’s nephew Christoph, the nephew of the Palatinate-Neumarkt branch, fell to Otto, who now also ruled from Neumarkt.
Count Palatines of Mosbach
1410-1448 Otto I.
In 1448 Count Palatine Otto of Mosbach inherited Palatinate-Neumarkt after the death of his nephew Christoph. His son Otto II. continued the line, but moved his government to Neumarkt. There, Otto II died childless, thus also the line Palatinate-Mosbach died out. The territory fell back to the Elector Philip of the Palatinate (elecotral line) and was again united with the Palatine domain.
Count Palatines of Mosbach
1448-1461 Otto I.
1461-1499 Otto II.
Lands were lost one after the other: Brandenburg was lost by Otto in 1373, Tyrol (whose heiress Ludwig of Brandenburg married) in 1363 at the death of Ludwig’s son Meinhard. The Dutch lands passed after the extinction of Albrecht’s male line in 1425 to the dukes of Burgundy; the territory of Straubing, which that line also held, was the subject of a dispute until it was divided equally between surviving agnates in 1429 by the Emperor. Meanwhile, in 1353 Lower Bavaria was also divided but later reunited in Stephan’s issue, the only surviving male line of Emperor Ludwig IV.
Dukes of Bavaria
1340-1347 Ludwig IV. the bavarian
the six sons of Ludwig of IV. , Ludwig V., Stephen II, Louis VI, William I., Albrecht I. and Otto V. reign together. Afterwards their possessions are divided into Upper Bavaria-Tyrol and Brandenburg, Lower Bavaria-Landshut and Lower Bavaria-Straubing-Holland-Hainaut.
Between the two brothers Wilhelm and Albrecht, there was no further division of the country. They agreed only a de facto separation of their areas of interest. While Wilhelm wanted to concentrate on the Dutch territories in which he ruled as governor of his mother for several years, took over Albrecht Lower Bavaria-Straubing. The young ruler had just begun to erect a new, befitting Herzogenburg, when he was recalled in 1357 in the Netherlands. His brother, who reigned since the death of Margarethe in 1356 as Wilhelm I. of Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland had suffered a stroke from which he never recovered. He was thenceforth considered insane and incapable of ruling. The Netherlands stands now turned for help to Albrecht, the next heirs. His government incompetent brother William permanent the rest of his still quite long life enclosed in a chamber in hennegauischen Castle Le Quesnoy, before he died in 1389. In foreign affairs, Albrecht tried to neutrality and versatile possible alliances with neighbors its territories. His youngest son Johann III. he let elect at the age of barely fifteen years as Bishop of Liege. Specifically Albrechts ambitious marriage policy has been widely attention. Organised by him was the double wedding of Cambrai in 1385, when his eldest son Wilhelm II. married a daughter of the powerful burgundian Duke Philip the Bold and his son Johann the Fearless married simultaneously with Albrechts daughter Margarete. Albrechts second son Albert II took over from 1387 the government of Lower Bavaria-Straubing. However, he died after a 10-year reign in 1397, so that the governorship passded to Johann III. This kept but rarely in Straubing on because he was held by turbulent events in the Netherlands in breathing. So Lower Bavaria-Straubing was ruled again by orderlies and Viztumen, some of which came to significant influence. As Albrecht I in 1404 died after 50 years of reign, his duchy was in a both domestically stable and economically prosperous state. The government of Lower Bavaria-Straubing went now finally to Johan III., While Wilhelm II. inherited the counties of Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland.
After the unexpected death of Wilhelm II. in 1417 led to fierce infighting. Wilhellm had his daughter Jacobäa named as the heiress of the dutch territories. But Johann III. did not recognize their claims and wanted to take over the sole power in the duchy of Bavaria-Straubing. Law in the Empire, the customs of Holland and Zeeland and the house contracts the Wittelsbach family were on his side and the urban-bourgeois party of Kabeljauwen supported him in the hope of more political voice. After Johann III. had shown that he could prevail militarily his claims, the stubbornly fighting for their heritage Jakobäa had to concede power on their lands to him piecemeal. Her changing marriage alliances with France, Brabant and England had the confident princess not incorporated the help that she had hoped for. King Sigismund enfeoffed the former Liège Elect, who had been abandoned by his diocese and married the Emperor’s niece Elisabeth of Gorlitz, with the Dutch territories. He feared not without reason that they under Jakobäa the would vome to much under the domination of France and Burgundy. Johann III. was the last Duke of Bavaria-Straubing. He unfolded in the few years that remained to him, a great activity. Johann promoted artists such as the painter Jan van Eyck and had converted the Straubinger Palace. The influential Viztum Heinrich Nothaft, who had taken control of parts of the threatened Hussiteneinfällen Straubinger Ländchen because of his wealth, he replaced by a Dutchman. In January 1425 Johann III. was poisoned under suspicious circumstances, without having left an heir. The competitive counties did not fall on Johanns desire to his niece, but to their cousin Philip III. of Burgundy, against which Jakobäa again could not say. In the Hague Treaty of 1433 Philipp received the full sovereign rights over Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland after him already in the treaties of Douai (1425) and Delft (1428) far-reaching powers of attorney had been overwritten. Thus the story of the Wittelsbach dynasty ended in the Netherlands. Even the “Straubinger Ländchen” was after the assassination of Johann III. the subject of fierce disputes among the Bavarian Wittelsbach, where even the later Roman King Albrecht of Austria participated as nephew Johann’s. The Straubinger estates who feared a civil war between the Wittelsbach lines, eventually called King Sigismund for help. This decreed in 1429 in Bratislava award the division of Lower Bavaria areas between Louis VII. The Gebarteten of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, Heinrich the Rich of Bavaria-Landshut and Ernst and Wilhelm III. of Bayern Munich. The capital Straubing fell to Bayern Munich. Ernst sat his son, the later Duke Albrecht III., As a governor in Straubing. The Duchy of Bavaria-Straubing had stopped it to exist.
Dukes of Bavaria-Straubing
1347-1388 Wilhelm I., also Count of Holland, Hennegau and Sealand (since 1357 unable to reign)
1388-1404 Albrecht I. and Albrecht II. (died 1397) also Counts of Holland, Hennegau and Sealand
1404-1417 Wilhelm II., also Count of Holland, Hennegau and Sealand
1417-1425 Johann III. also Count of Holland, Hennegau and Sealand
Upper-Bavaria and Tyrol
In the contract of Landsberg from 1349 when the sons of Ludwig the bavarian divided their posessions Ludwig V. the brandenburgian and his younger brothers Ludwig VI. and Otto got Upper-Bavaria, Brandenburg and Tyrol. With the Luckauer contract in December 1351 gave Ludwig V. the brandenburger the March Brandenburg to his brothers Ludwig VI. the Roman and Otto V. from in order to rule alone in Upper-Bavaria-. Ludwig V. then united the administration of Upper Bavaria and Tyrol. Lower Bavaria was 1353 again divided in the Regensburg contract, the Upper Bavarian line ended just ten years later with the death of Meinhard, the son of Ludwig the brandenburgian
Dukes of Upper-Bavaria
1349-1361 Ludwig V., 1323-1351, also Count of Tyrol since 1342
1349-1351 Ludwig VI.,
1349-1351 Otto V.
1361-1363 Meinhard, also Count of Tyrol
1349-1353 Stephan II. and his brothers Wilhelm I. and Albrecht I. reigned in Straubing-Holland and Bavaria-Landshut. In the Regensburger Contract in 1353 it was divided and 1353 Stephan II. got the south and founded Bavaria-Landshut. Wilhelm and Albrecht got the dutch posession and the Straubinger country.
Dukes of Lower-Bavaria-Landshut
1349-1375 Stephan II.
1349-1353 Wilhelm I.
1349-1353 Albrecht I.
In 1353 the duchy of Bavaria-Landshut was founded with Stephan II. as first Duke. When Duke Meinhard of Upper Bavaria died in 1363, Stephan II. also received Upper Bavara. He marched in Tyrol, but had to do without the peace of Scharding in 1369. Through his quarrel with his half-brother Ludwig VI, who had also made claims to Upper Bavaria , the Wittelsbachers also lost Brandenburg in 1373, since the ardent Ludwig had employed Emperor Karl IV. as heir. When Stephan II died two years later, the territory he dominated was first occupied by his three sons, Johann II, Stephan III. and Friedrich who reigned together. After conflicts between the brothers, there was another division of the hereditary estate in 1392: Johann II received the part of Bavaria-Munich, Stephan III. Bayern-Ingolstadt and Friedrich took over the government of the now diminished duchy of Bavaria-Landshut. Duke Heinrich XVI. could considerably extend the power of his duchy. He suppressed unrest in the Landshuter citizenship and successfully fought against his cousin Ludwig VII of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. In 1429 he received part of the Duchy of Straubing-Holland in the Prussian arbitration bill, and in 1447 Albrecht III, of Bavaria-Munich handed him over Bavaria-Ingolstad. Duke Ludwig IX. defeated Albrecht Achilles of Brandenburg-Ansbach in the battle of Giengen in the Bavarian War in 1462 and also fought against Emperor Friedrich III, with whom he concluded the peace of Prague in 1463. The splendid Landshut wedding in 1475, when his son Georg married the Polish princess Hedwig, was one of the highlights of his reign. His son followed him in 1479. Georg, who was also called “the riche ,” was one of the most important supporters of King Maximilian I. With his death in December 1503, the history of the duchy of Bavaria-Landshut ended. Now followed by the Landshut succession war which was only ended through the Arbitration of german King Maximilian I on 30.07.1505, at the Reichstag in Cologne. The former duchy of Bavaria-Landshut was divided between Bavaria-Munich and the newly created duchy of Pfalz-Neuburg. The largest part, including the two former residences Burg Trausnitz and Burghausen, fell to Albrecht IV of Bavaria-Munich.
Dukes of Bavaria-Landshut
1353-1375 Stephan II.
1393-1450 Heinrich XVI.
1450-1479 Ludwig IX.
His son Ludwig VII, who, as a brother and adviser to the french Queen Isabeau , had considerable funds, began, however, already back in 1395 to repurchase the territory pledged by his father. Until 1416, he had almost the entire duchy in the form prescribed in 1392/93, but he did not want to spend any money on Weißenhorn and Mauerstetten because of the great distance. In addition, he acquired around 1400 from the Munich Duke’s Gaimersheim near Ingolstadt, Reichertshofen and several castles in the Munich core area. In 1406 he finally enlarged his property on the Nordgau around Parkstein and Weiden (by the landgraves of Leuchtenberg) and SulzbachThe 1420s then brought about two major territorial changes for Bavaria-Ingolstadt. At first, Ludwig VII had to suffer extensive losses of territory during the Bavarian War (1420-1422). Large parts of the “land in front of the mountains” from Markt Swabia to Wildenwart in the Chiemgau fell to Bavaria-Munich and Bavaria-Landshut. Also the posession from the northern territories where lost with the exception of Hersbruck and Hilpoltstein. Johann of Palatin-Neumarkt and Friedrich of Brandenburg-Ansbach took over the run, the Parkstein, the Weiden, the Raft and the Vohenstrauß as well as the County Graisbach, Johann also secured Sulzbach, Freystadt and Holnstein. The castles he controlled in the Munich area Ludwig had to surrender and Donauwörth also withdrew from his rule. In the Pressburg arbitration bill of 1429, on the other hand, he was able to expand his domain of domination: Kirchberg, Geiselhöring, and Dingolfing in the south of the Straubing Ländchen, the title to the pledged Waldmünchen as well as the area around Schärding and Königstein east of the Inn. In addition, the Munich dukes gave back the Swabian market they had conquered in the Bavarian War. Since 1438, the conflict between Ludwig VII and his son of the same name has been reflected in territorial development; The duchy fell into two parts. Ludwig VIII, by his marriage to Margarete, the daughter of Friedrich of Brandenburg, got Graisbach and the Brandenburg part of the possessions lost in the Bavarian War on the Nordgau back, but had to pawn Parkstein, Weiden, Lauf, Markt Schwaben and Höchstädt to the War against his father. After the death of Ludwig VIII in April 1445, Bavaria-Ingolstadt remained divided. When Ludwig VII died in May 1447, Heinrich of Bavaria-Landshut, who had already won Kirchberg and Dingolfing from Ludwig VIII. in 1436, took over the entire territory of the Duchy. The territories pledged by Ludwig VIII were almost completely repaired. Bavaria-Munich went largely empty – only Markt Schwaben remained near Munich -, however, finally 1505 the Landshuter dukes could inherit.
In the division of 1392 Friedrich got the new Duchy Bavaria-Munich. It consisted essentially of two areas, separated by a narrow strip at Indersdorf, which belonged to Bavaria-Landshut. The northern part stretched from Riedenburg at the Altmühl over Neustadt at the Danube until Vohburg till Mainburg and Pfaffenhofen at the Ilm. The larger southern part on the Isar was bounded in the west by the Lech. It stretchet from Dachau, Fürstenfeldbruck and Munich in the north over Starnberg, Wolfratshausen, Aibling and Tölz. Further belonged Regenstauf and Stadtamhof to Bavaria-Munich. Also nominally part of the Duchy were Schwandorf, Burglengenfeld, Velburg and Hemau on the Nordgau part but they had been pledged already around 1350 to the Palatinate Wittelsbacher. In the 1420s, the Dukes of Bavaria-Munich were able to significantly expand their territory. After the Bavarian War (1420-1422), they were given the area around Ebersberg and Markt Schwaben of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, and in the Pressburg arbitration bill of 1429 about half of the Straubing country was awarded to them. As a result, large parts of the Bavarian Forest around Furth, Kötzting and Regen, as well as a broad strip south of the Danube with Kelheim and the Straubing residence in Bavaria-Munich.
Stephan III Felt overwhelmed by the division of 1393 , and so in the Bavarian House War of 1394/95 there were warlike conflicts between the Munich and Ingolstadt lines. After the end of the hostilities the Dukes of Bavaria-Munich and Bavaria-Ingolstadt agreed to manage together again. After Johann II died in 1397, Stephan III tried to prevail over Johann’s sons Ernst and Wilhelm III. [And supported the raising of the Munich guilds against the young dukes. It was not until 1403 that Ernst and Wilhelm were able to bring the city under their control again and to achieve a permanent return to the division of 1392. The next decades were the conflict between Friedrich’s son, Heinrich XVI. and Stephan’s son Ludwig VII. Ludwig attempted with all legal and finally in the Bavarian War (1420-1422) also with military means ,to compensate him for the disadvantage of the Ingolstadt line in the division of 1392. The Munich dukes Ernst and Wilhelm III. tried again and again to mediate between the parties, but after the coalition of Eichstatt in 1410, they finally took the side of Landshut. They became members of the League of Constance, a defense alliance directed against Ludwig, and supported Heinrich after he had attacked Ludwig in 1417 at the Council of Constance.The Dukes of Munich won the trust of Emperor Sigismund who named Wilhelm III. as a protector of the Council of Basel 0 and therefore, in the Prussian arbitration court, received half of the Lower Bavarian territories of the Duchy of Straubing-Holland in 1429. When Wilhelm died in 1435, his son Adolf was still a toddler. All the hopes for the succession therefore depended on Ernst’s only son Albrecht III. However, he had a relationship with Badersdaughter Agnes Bernauer and refused to conclude a regular marriage. His father Ernst let Agnes Bernauer drove to drown in the Danube, whereupon Albrecht briefly took the side of Ludwig VII of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. In 1436 father and son, however, reconciled again and Albrecht married Anna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen. Shortly after Ernst’s death in 1438, a war broke out between Lxdwig VII. of Bavaria-Ingoldstadt and his son, Ludwig VIII. Albrecht III. supported LoLudwig uis VIII, and was able to secure Swabia. In 1443, Ludwig VII was captured by his son, and after his death in 1445, he was first sent to Albrecht Achilles of Brandenburg-Ansbach and then to Henry XVI. From Bavaria-Landshut. After Ludwig VII had died, Heinruch XVI. of Bavaria-landshut took over with the support of Emperor Friedrich III. Bavaria-Ingodlstadt which Albrecht fina lly accepted in the Erdinger Treaty in 1450. Albrecht III- left five sons, of whom 1410 Johann IV and Siegmund succeeded. After Johann’s death, Albrecht IV. forced his participation in the government. Since 1467 he ruled alone, while Siegmund was rescued with Bavaria-Dachau, which fell back to Bavaria-Munich after his death. When Duke George of Bavaria-Landshut died in 1503, the Landshut succession war broke out, which ended in 1505 with the reunion of the Bavarian part duchies by the Cologne sentence of Emperor Maximilian.
Dukes of Bavaria-Munich
1392-1397 Johann II.
1497-1435 Wilhelm III.
1438-1460 Albrecht III.
1460-1463 Johann IV.
1465-1505 Albrecht IV.
Duchy of Bavaria
After the Landshuter war of inheritance had ended through an sentence of Emperor Maximilian the bavaria part-duchis where reunited under Duke Albrecht IV. of Bavaria-Munich and from now on it was only called Bavaria. In 1506 Duke Albrecht IV. introdcued the law of Primogenitur so that further division where avoided for the future. After Albrecht IV’s death, however, he was succeeded by his eldest son Wilhelm IV but the latter’s brother Ludwig asked for a partition, and a treaty of 1514 decided that the duchy remained whole but its government was divided: Wilhelm ruled Munich and Burghausen, Ludwig ruled Landshut and Straubing. In a secret article Ludwig promised not to marry, and he died unmarried in 1545.
In Oldbavaria, the Bavarian dukes prevented a greater expansion of the Reformation. As early as 1524, Wilhelm IV had already been won by the Pope by the cession of sovereign rights over the Bavarian bishops and the income of the ecclesiastical institutes for the cause of Catholicism and was one of the most zealous opponents of the Reformation which he did not allow in his country. He took part in the Schmalkaldic War on the part of Karl V. In Bavaria, however, individual territorial lords, such as the Counts of Ortenburg and von Haag, and the Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg, introduced the Lutheran confession. In order to counter the further spread in Old Bavaria, the Bavarian Duke Albrecht V. led a court trial against the so-called Bavarian nobility conspiracy in 1564. In Franconia, the Reformation spread rapidly, and in Eastern Swabia, too, it found numerous supporters, especially in cities like Augsburg. The Reformation also spread in the Upper Palatinate, which was under the rule of the Protestant electors of the Palatinate. In 1571 all the Lutherans of the country were exiled by Duke Albrecht V. From 1542, the Jesuits founded the Univesity Ingolstadt (founded in 1472) as a center of counterreformation, next to Dillingen. The bishops of Würzburg and Bamberg operated the counter-reformation with some rigorous measures. Wilhelm V successfully participated in the war against the Protestant Archbishop of Cologne, and for almost two centuries, Bavarian princes had represented the Elector of Cologne. From 1577 onwards the estates responsible for the taxation of the duke were no longer regularly convened. This led Bavaria to the brink of financial ruin and the abdication of the Duke. Wilhelm’s son, Maximilian I, deprived the estates by replacing them with a government agency that took over administration and finances. At the same time he introduced an ecclesiastical police regiment as part of the counter-revolution.In 1607, after a disturbance of a Catholic procession by Protestants, the Maximilian I. occupied the free imperial city of Donauwörth and incorporated it into his duchy. This was the reason for the Protestant princes and cities to join the Union under the leadership of the Calvinist Elector and Wittelsbacher Friedrich of the Palatinate z. In 1609, the Catholic forces, led by Duke Maximilian I, formed a league. In 1619, Maximilian I. and Emperor Ferdinand II allied themselves against the Protestant Bohemian Estates and their chosen counter-king, the Palatine Elector Friedrich V. In the Battle of the White Mountains near Prague the troops of the League defeated under the leadership of Bavarian leader Tilly 1620 the Protestants. Then Tilly left the Palatinate occupied. As a gratitude Maximilian I received the Palatine.
Dukes of Bavaria
1505-1508 Albrecht IV.
marred to Archduchess Kunigunde of Austria
1508-1550 Wilhelm IV.
married to Princess Maria Jakobäa of Baden
1508-1545 Ludwig IX.
1550-1579 Albrecht V.
married to Archduchess Anna of Austria
1579-1598 Wilhelm V.
married to Princess Renata of Lorraine
1598-1623 Maximilian I.
married first to Princess Elisabeth of Lorraine
married second to Archduchess Anna of Austria
Electorate of Bavaria
In 1620 the troops of the Catholic League under the leadership of the Bavarian leader Tilly defeated the Protestants in the Battle of the White Mountains near Prague. As a thank-you, Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria received the personal electoral dignity in 1623, and in 1628 the hereditary dignity as well as the upper Palatinate occupied by him as a war indemnity. In the course of the Thirty Years’ War, however, Bavaria was occupied and devastated by enemy troops in 1632/34 and 1648. East Swabia almost completely lost his previous political significance through the destruction. In the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, the electoral dues and the territorial gains of Bavaria were confirmed. only after extinction of the Bavarian line would the vote and Upper Palatinate be returned to the Rudolfine line of the Wittelsbach (an 8th electoral vote was created for the Palatinate). Maximilian I also acquired Mündelheim by cession from the barons of Maxelrain in 1618, and the landgraviate of Leuchtenberg, whose heiress his brother Albrecht had married, and which was exchanged by Albrecht for other estates. Both Mündelheim and Leuchtenberg were given to Maximilian I’s second son Maximilian Philip, and returned at his death without issue in 1705 to Bavaria.
In the seventeenth century the decline of the estates also began in Bavaria through the Thirty Years’ War and with the growing power of the sovereignty . In 1669 the state parliament was finally convened. While Maximilian’s successor, Elector Ferdinand Maria, renounced the imperial crown in 1657 because of his reserved policy towards the Habsburgs, his son Maximilian II Emanuel was at first attempting as an ally of Hapsburg, later by an alliance with Louis XIV. Bavaria found itself involved in several wars. Elector Maximilian II. Emanuel had married the daughter of Emperor Leopold I and the Infanta Marguarita Theresa of Spain, and their son Joseph Clemens was one of the closest relatives of the king of Spain Carlos II, whose death without issue was widely expected. One arrangement devised for Carlos’s succession had Joseph Clemens inheriting a share of Spanish possessions, but his death in 1699 put an end to this plan. Bavaria sided with France in the ensuing War of Spanish Succession, against Austria. This led in 1704 to the Austrian occupation of Bavaria in the Spanish Succession War and to the temporary loss of the Bavarian Kurwürde and the Upper Palatinate to the Pfalzer Wittelsbacher Johann Wilhelm. It was not until 1715 that Max Emanuel returned to Bavaria as Elector. To seal the reconciliation with Austria, the electoral prince Karl Albrecht married Maria Amalia, daughter of Emperor Joseph I.
In 1740 Emperor Karl VI died, and the house of Habsburg was extinct. Elector Karl Albrecht, refused to accept the Austrian pragmatic sanction of 1713 by which all Austrian lands (including Hungary and Bohemia) were to pass to Karl VI’s daughter Maria Theresia. Karl Albrecht’s claim was based partly on his wife, daughter of Karl VI’s elder brother Joseph, who had priority as Regredienterb and according to the terms of the Austrian pact of 1703; partly on his descent from a daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I who had renounced her rights until extinction of the male line of Austria. At the Emperor’s death Bavaria and the Palatinate immediately began exercising the imperial vicariate jointly, and Karl Albrecht simultaneously made his claims and became candidate for the Imperial throne. With his French and Prussian allies he was able to capture Prague in 1741 and be crowned king of Bohemia; on 24.01.1742 he was elected Emperor as Karl VII. The ensuing war of Austrian Succession was not favorable to him, however, and he lost his lands in 1743 and died in 1745. His son Maximilian Joseph succeeded him, two months shy of his 18th birthday. A few months later on 22.04.1745 he signed a treaty with Austria: in exchange for restitution of his lands he accepted the pragmatic sanction and withdrew Bavaria’s claims. He also gave up the magnificence of his predecessors in 1745 and devoted himself to internal reform
In 1770 the Elector of Bavaria’s only male relative died, and he was now the last of the Bavarian line. To ensure the smooth inheritance of all his lands by his kinsman the Elector Palatinate a series of treaties where a series of treaties were concluded in 1766, 1771 and 1774. On 30.12.1777 the last male-line descendant of Emperor Ludwig IV the Bavarian died, thus ending 430 years of separation between the Palatinate and Bavaria, which had begun with the two sons of Ludwig II the Strong, Rudolf and Emperor Ludwig IV. The rights of the Palatine branch to the whole Bavarian inheritance were founded on a series of treaties, beginning with the treaty of Pavia in 1329, and strengthened by a series of treaties made during the lifetime of Elector Maximilian III. Joseph of Bavaria.
Austria, however, made the following claims. When the treaty of Pavia was signed, Ludwig IV was only in possession of Upper Bavaria. Lower Bavaria belonged to a branch issued from Ludwig the Strong’s younger brother, which only became extinct in 1340. At that point Lower Bavaria passed to Ludwig IV’s sons who made a division between themselves and created a new line of Lower Bavaria. But this division was a successoral division (Todteilung), and at the extinction of this new line in 1425 the agnates had no claims; rather, Lower Bavaria should have gone either to Albrecht of Austria, nephew of the last duke of Lower Bavaria, or to Emperor Sigismond as overlord, who invested his son-in-law, the same Albrecht of Austria, with it. However weak the legal case was, the Palatine heir to Bavaria was pressured into signing an agreement on 03.01.1778 with Austria, whereby he accepted those claims and ceded Lower Bavaria to Austria. The King of Prussia persuaded the Duke of Zweibrücken, as closest agnate, to withhold his consent to the agreement. Other claimants (the sister of the last Elector of Bavaria, dowager electress of Saxony, as claimant to the allodial estates; Mecklenburg as holding an eventual investiture to Leuchtenberg from 1502 and 1647) turned to Prussia as well to protect their rights. A brief and relatively bloodless war between Prussia and Austria ensued in 1778, quickly settled by the Treaty of Teschen of 13.05 1779.The only gain Austria made was the Innviertel, a wedge of land between the Danube, the Inn and the Salza. The rest of Bavaria remained to the Elector Palatine, the convention of 1778 was repealed and those of 1766, 1771 and 1774 affirmed. The Saxon claim was settled by a payment of 6 million Gulden, and by the transfer from the Bohemian crown to the Palatinate and from the Palatinate to Saxony, of rights over the Schwarzburg lordships of Glaucha, Waldenburg and Lichtenstein.
Emperor Joseph II tried again to annex Bavaria to Austria in 1785, this time proposing to exchange it for the Austrian Netherlands except Namur and Luxemburg, under the title of king of Burgundy (note that the Elector of Bavaria had already received the Austrian Netherlands from the king of Spain during the War of Spanish Succession, a cession that was rescinded as part of the settlement of the war). Again Prussia intervened and the duke of Zweibrücken refused to give his consent.
Elector Karl Theodor died in 1799, the last of the Pfalz-Neuburg line, and after his widow, Maria Leopoldina, declared that there was no heir to expect, the Electorate passed to the Duke of Zweibrücken, Maximilian Joseph, without any dispute.
Elector Maximilian I. Joseph lost a considerable amount of territory on the left bank of the Rhine, which was formally ceded to France by the treaty of Lunéville of 1801: the duchies of Zweibrücken, Simmern, Jülich, the principalities of Lautern and Veldenz, the marquisate of Berg op Zoom, the lordship of Ravenstein and various possessions in Belgium and Alsace. In compensation, he received in 1803 the greater part of the bishopric of Würzburg, the bishoprics of Bamberg, Freysing, Augsburg and part of Passau with the city of Passau, and 13 priories and abbeys as well as a number of imperial cities and villages in Franconia and Swabia.
In the war of 1805 Bavaria sided with France against Austria and was rewarded handsomely. By the peace of Pressburg of 26.12.1805, Austria ceded the march of Burgau, the principality of Eichstädt and the remainder of Passau, the Tyrol with Brixen and Trient, the Voralberg and the region of Lindau. The imperial city of Augsburg was also given to Bavaria, in exchange for ceding Würzburg to the archduke grand-duke of Tuscany. The peace treaty also conferred on the Elector the title of king of Bavaria.
Electors of Bavaria
1623-1651 Maximlian I.
married first to Princess Elisabeth Renata of Lorrane
married second to Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria
1651-1679 Ferdinand Maria
married to Princess Henriette Adeliade of Savoy
1679-1726 Maximilian II. Emanuel
married first to Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria
married second to Therese Kunigunde Sobieska, Princess of Poland
1726-1745 Karl Albrecht as Karl VII,.also Holy roman Emperor
married to Archduchess Maria Amalie of Austria
1745-1777 Maximilian III. Joseph
married to Princess Maria Anna of Saxony
1777-1799 Karl Thedor
married first to Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste of Sulzbach
married second to Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria-Este, Princess of Modena
1799-1806 Maximilian IV. Joseph wo in 1806 became King
Kingdom of Bavaria
In the peace of Pressburg, concluded on 2612.1805, between France and the German Emperor Franz II, Bavaria, which had allied itself with Napoleon, was proclaimed a kingdom. Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of Bavaria – since 1799 ruler over Bavaria – officially took the title “King Maximilian I of Bavaria” on 01.01.1806.
The formation of the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806 brought further territorial increases: the imperial city of Nürnberg, the commanderies of the Teutonic order in Rohr and Waldstetten, and sovereignty over a number of formerly immediate territories: the principalities of Schwarzenberg and Oettingen, the counties of Castell, Sternstein and Edelstetten, the burgraviate of Winterriden, the lordships of Limburg-Speckfeld, Wiesentheid, Buxheim and Thannhausen, and the bailiwicks of Kirchberg and Schillingsfürst. A declaration of March 19, 1807 set the legal status of the mediatized families in Bavaria.
More territorial adjustments came in 1809, when Bavaria ceded part of Tyrol to the Kingdom of Italy and some gains in Swabia and Franconia to Würtemberg and Würzburg, but received in compensation Salzburg and Berchtesgaden, the Innviertel and part of the Hausruckviertel, and the principalities of Regensburg and Bayreuth.
After the disastrous Russian campaign of 1812, in which Bavaria participated as ally of France, the Napoleonic order imposed in Germany crumbled. Bavaria switched sides just in time, by a treaty with Austria on 08.10.1813. The treaty guaranteed Bavaria its current possessions, and promised compensation for any adjustment, with the aim of establishing a continuous and contiguous territorial entity. On 03.06., 1814 Bavaria returned Tyrol, the Vorarlberg, Salzburg, the Innviertel and Hausruckviertel to Austria, and received in exchange Würzburg, Aschaffenburg and the Palatinate on the left bank of the Rhine, and further compensation by a convention of 20.11.1815.
In 1818, Maximilian I Joseph issued the constitution of 1818, which, contrary to the constitution of 1808, also regulated the question of a popular representation. It added political liberties to civil liberties. “No country is now more freely acted in Europe, where free speech is more openly treated than here in Bavaria,” replied Anselm von Feuerbach, 1818. The new constitution envisaged a division into two chambers. In the first chamber were representatives of the clergy and nobility as well as other persons appointed by the king. The second chamber was occupied by an indirect census law. With it, Bavaria became a constitutional monarchy. The constitution of the kingdom of Bavaria, which had been largely revised in 1818, remained largely in force in this form until the end of the monarchy in 1918.
After the death of his King Maximilian I on 13.10,1825 followed his son Ludwig I. He made the capital Munich a center of art and culture. The new king founded universities and promoted a reform of schools in the kingdom. He rehabilitated the state budget and secured the finances of the kingdom through savings in all areas, including military service. By the London Treaty of 1832 the European powers Russia, France and England committed themselves to the Bavarian Prince Otto as the new king of Greece. In 1828, the Bavarian-Württemberg Customs Association was established. After the Revolution of 1830 in Paris and the spread of the revolutionary movement to large parts of Europe, Ludwig’s policy showed increasingly reactionary tendencies. He reintroduced the censorship and abolished the freedom of the press. Under Ludwig I. the influence of the so-called Ultramontans under Karl von Abel increased. Abel also hindered the formation of Protestant congregations, favored converts to Catholicism, and emphasized the monarchical authority. The Hambacherfest 1832 in the Palatinate on the hambach castle near Neustadt an der Weinstraße had its roots in the dissatisfaction of the Palatine population with the Bavarian administration. In 1834, Bavaria joined the German Customs Union.
In 1848 Maximilian II. took over the government after the abdication of his father because of the affair with Lola Montez. Under his government, the Parliament announced liberal reforms in the areas of parliamentary suffrage, press censorship, assembly and association law as well as the courts, as well as the liberation of peasants. However, the implementation of these reforms took a long time. Maximilian’s project of a law on Jewish emancipation met with strong opposition among the people. The Constitution which had been resolved by the Frankfurt National Assembly on 28.03.2849, rejected the new king. This triggered the Palatinate uprising. The king called the Prussian military to help, and a Bavarian army corps in the Palatinate marched on 10.06.1849, and the insurrection was put down. Despite Prussian aid in the Palatinate, Bavaria did not participate in the Erfurt Union, with which the Prussian king wanted to create a German unity. In the autumn of 1850, Bavaria was thus at the side of Austria and marched with his troops into Kurhessen, where Bavarian-Austrian and Prussian armies stood face to face.
Together with his minister, Ludwig von der Pfordten, Maximilian continued the concept of triad politics, a Third Germany, in the following years. The German middle-class under the leadership of Bavaria should develop into a third force alongside the two great powers of Prussia and Austria. It therefore participated in the Würzburg conferences. However, the other states were also suspicious of Bavaria.
King Maximilian II. died on 10.03,1864. On the same day, his eldest son Ludwig was proclaimed King Ludwig II. After the Federal Decree of 14.06.1866, against Prussia, the German War began. Bavaria fought alongside Austria against Prussia and suffered a heavy defeat in the battles at Uettingen on 26.07. In 1867 Prussia founded the North German Confederation. Bavaria remained outside the confederation and did not join a South German confederation, which had been proposed in Prague peace. On 22.08..1866, King Ludwig II had to sign a protective and trutzbund. Thus, in the event of a war, the Bavarian army was placed under the command of the Prussian king. In the war against France in 1870, Bavaria therefore struggled on the side of Northern Germany.
With the November treaties of November 1870 Bavaria’s accession to the North German Confederation was also prepared. Only reluctantly did the Bavarian parliament ratify the Constituiton of the Empire of 01.01.1871 belatedly, but it nevertheless contributed retroactively to it and to the whole German state. The resistance to joining the Prussian-dominated new empire was considerable. The Bavarian government, under Prime Minister Bray, was able to reach a barely two-thirds majority, especially after the Bavarian patriot’s party. The journalist, Dr. Sigl, in the popular Bavarian fatherland warned relentlessly of Prussian militarism: “More wars, more cripples, more death lists and more taxpayers …” He compared the new imperial crown with an enlarged Prussian pimpleshell.
In spite of the opposition to an accession to the German Empire Bavaria was able to secure privileges as the second-largest state, such as maintaining its own army, its own postal service and rail. Like the other member states, the Kingdom of Bavaria also retained the right to its own foreign policy in the German Reich and also had its own diplomats.
In the late evening of the 09.06.1886 the “fairy king” Ludwig II, who was and is still known throughout the world for his magnificent palace buildings, was arrested at Neuschwanstein Castle by a commission of the Bavarian government. She told him that he had been disarmed and spent the night at Berg Castle . On the 10. June , his uncle Luitpold took charge of the government as Prince Regent. A few days later, on 13.06.1886, Ludwig II was killed in the lake Starnberg, and his younger brother Otto became his successor. Since King Otto was not able to govern because of a mental disorder, the government continued to be governed by Prince Luitpold, the third son of Ludwgi I. . This interim condition then lasted for a quarter of a century until his death in 1912.
The “Prinzregentenzeiteit”, as the rule of Prince Luitpold is often called, is due to the political passivity of Luitpold as an era of the gradual re-establishment of Bavarian interests behind that of the empire. In connection with the unfortunate end of the previous reign of King Ludwig II, this break was all the more effective in the Bavarian monarchy. The constitutional change of 1913, in the opinion of historians, ultimately led to a decisive break in the continuity of the rule of the king, especially as this amendment had been approved by the Landtag as popular representation, and thus indirectly a step away from the constitutional to the parliamentary monarchy. The combination of these two developments is now regarded as the main cause of the unspectacular and unresistant end of the Bavarian kingdom in the course of the November revolution of 1918. After the death of Luitpold, his son Ludwig also succeeded as a Prince-Regent, but after a constitutional amendment of 04.11.1913, which was resolved by the Bavarian parliament, he was officially admitted to King Ludwig III from 05. November. Otto remained until his death in 1916 “king honorary”.
The end of the First World War also meant the end of the monarchy in Bavaria. As a result of the shortage of supply and the losses in the First World War, the support which the monarchy had hitherto enjoyed in the people faded. The militant presence of Ludwig III. which led to the expansion of Bavaria by annexation after a victoriously ending war, did the rest. His attitude was perceived as too prussian friendly. In the course of the November revolution, Kurt Eisner proclaimed the Free State of Bavaria on 07.11. 1918, and declared Ludwig as King for deposed. Thus he was the first German monarch whom the revolution had driven out. In spite of the fermenting dissatisfaction among the largely inadequate population, the rebellion met the King completely unprepared. From the outbreak of the Revolution, he was told by a pedestrian during his daily afternoon walk in the English Garden. After his return to the residence, he found it largely abandoned by the staff and the guards. Finally, the rest of the court fled with cars to Willdenwart Castle, from there to the Hintersee in Ramsau near Berchtesgaden, and the security of the king seemed threatened, and finally to Anif Castle near Salzburg in Austria. On 13 November 1918, with the Anifer Declaration, he expelled the Bavarian officials and soldiers of their oath.
Kings of Bavaria
1806-1825 Maximilian I.
married first to Princess Ausgustge Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt
married second to Princess Karoline of Baden
1825-1848 Ludwig I.
married to Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildbughausen
1848-1864 Maximilian II.
married to Princess Marie of Prussia
1864-1886 Ludwig II.
1886-1913 Otto I.
1913-1918 Ludwig III.
married to Archduchess Marie Therese of Austria-Este, Princess of Modena
The Royal House since the End of the Monarchy
King Ludwig III. Ludwig first lived in exile on his estates in Hungary and after the outbreak of the revolution in Switzerland. In April 1920 he returned to Bavaria, where he lived at Wildenwart Castle, and occasionally undertook excursions to Lenggries and Berchtesgaden. On 18.10.1921 he died in Sárvár, Hungary.. Together with his wife who had duied in 1919 he was bruied in the Church of OurLlady in Munich. He was succeedded as head of the Royal House by his oldest son Crown Prince Rupprecht who had an active Military career and guide of troops in the First World War. In the course of the division of state and house assets, the Wittelsbacher compensation foundation (Wittelsbacher Ausgleichsfonds) and the former Kronprinzen Rupprecht of Bavaria (Wittelsbacher Landesstiftung für Kunst und Wissenschaft) were established by a 1923 settlement. The Foundation received the art treasures of the Wittelsbacher acquired before 1804 and has since been the owner, although not the administrator of a large part of the holdings of the Munich museums, while younger art collections came into the possession of the compensation fund as Head of the Royal House
In the winter of 1932/33 Bavaria’s Prime Minister Heinrich Held and the chairman of the ruling Bavarian People’s Party, Fritz Schäffer, with the consent of the SPD, contacted Crown Prince Rupprecht to appoint him as General Commissioner of the Reich in the event of the government’s takeover of the NSDAP. Rupprecht was ready, but when Hitler really came to grips with Hitler, he hesitated, as did the Bavarian government. Rupprecht was an opponent of National Socialism and held secret contact with opposition groups. He had to go to Italy in 1939. There (mostly in Florence) he stayed during the Second World War. Since 1943, he has been advocating a strong federalism with the Western Allies, with possible restoration of the national monarchies. Theodor Christian Freiherr von Fraunberg, his former adjutant, hid him from the National Socialists in Florence, so that he escaped an arrest in 1944. His wife and children came to the concentration camp until the end of the war, first to Dachau, then to Flossenbürg. All members of the family survived.
In his last years, Crown Prince Rupprecht devoted himself chiefly to his art collection. As the last Wittelsbacher, he was buried in a State funeral in the Theatiner church in Munich on 06.08.1955.
Now his oldest son Albrecht, the only survinving child from his first marriage became Head of the Royal House. As such he assumed the Title Duke of Bavaria. Together with the celebration of his 75th birthday in 1980, fell the 800th anniversary anniversary of the Wittelsbach House, which was the occasion of the anniversary exhibition Wittelsbach and Bavaria, coincided. Albrecht of Bavaria died on 08.07.1996 at the age of 91 years.
His older son Franz succeeded him as Duke of Bavaria and Head of the Royal House. His special interest is the natural sciences of art. He has integrated his own important art collection with early works by Joseph Beuys, Georg Baselitz and Blinky Palermo as well as numerous contemporary German painters such as Jörg Immendorff and Sigmar Polke in the Pinakothek der Moderne as well as the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München an extensive private library on the art of the 20th and 20th centuries 21st century, he left the Central Institute for Art History in Munich in 2009. In 2003 he was the first European to receive the Duncan Phillips Award from the Washington Art Museum Phillips Collection, which has been awarded since 1999 to collectors and donors who support museums. Because of his extraordinary understanding of art, he became chairman of the International Council of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. He is an honorary member of the Marian Men’s Congregation of Mary, founded in 1610, at the Bürgersaal in Munich. The charitable organization Nymphenburg eV, which was founded by his mother, supported him in his charitable activities in Romania, Albania and African countries. He is also the patron of the Nymphenburger Talks, a platform for intercultural and interreligious dialogue.
As Head of the Royal House Duke Franz appoints the administrative boards of the Foundation Wittelsbacher Ausgleichsfonds,
As a descendant of the Stuarts, he is regarded by the Jacobites as a pretender to the British throne since the death of his father Albrecht and is described by them as “Francis II, King of England, Scotland, Ireland and France”. However, he never publicly claimed this title. Because of his childlessness, his brother Max Emanuel is also his successor in the Jacobite throne. If this person were to die before Franz, this title would go to Max Emanuel’s eldest daughter, Sophie, who is married to the Hereditary Prine of Liechtenstein.
His successor as head of the Royal House is his brother Max Emanuel, who was in 1965 adopted by Duke Ludwig Wilhelm in Bavaria. As Duke Max Emanuel in Bavaria has5 daughters but no son, the succession willthen pass to their cousin Prince Luitrold and his male Issue.
Head of the Royal House since the End of the Monarchy
1918-1921 King Ludwig III.
marrid to Archduchess Marie Therese of Austria-Este, Princess of Modena
1921-1955 Crown Prince Rupprecht
married first to Duchess Marie Gabriele in Bavaria
married second to Princess Antonia of Luxembourg, Princess of Nassau
1955-1996 Duke Albrecht
married first to Countess Maria Draskovich of Drakostjan
married second to Countess Maria-Jenke Keglevich of Buzin
since 19996 Duke Franz
The present members of the Royal Family
All members of the royal Family bear the Title Prince/Princewss of Bavaria and if in accorcdance with the House Law the Style of Royal Highness/HRH).
There are 3 lines. Two of them are going back to sons of King Ludwig III.
- Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria
married first to Duchess Maria Gabriele in Bavaria
married second to Princess Antonia of Luxembourg and Nassau
from the first marriage
- Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria
married first to Countess Maria Draskovich of Drakostjan
married second to Countess Maria-Jenke Keglevich of Buzin
from the first marriage:
- Marie Gabrielle
married to Fürst Georg of Waldburg zu Zeil and Trauchburg
- Marie Charlotte
marred to Fürst Paul of Quadt zu Wykradt and Isny
- Franz, Duke of Bavaria
- Max Emanuel, Duke in Bavaria
married to Countess Elizabeth Douglas
married to Hereditary Prince Alois of Liechtenstein
- Maire Caroline
married to Duke Philipp of Württemberg
married to Daniel Terberger
married first (divorced) to Klaus Runow
married second to Baron Andreas of Maltzahn
- Marie Gabrielle
from the second marriage:
marrried to Anne de Lustrac
married to Prince Ludwig of Bavaria
married first to Tito Brunetti
married second to Gustav Schimert
married to Juan Bradstock Lockett de Loyoza
married to Duke Carl of Croy
married to Duke Jean of Arenberg
The descendants of Prince Franz
married to Princess Isabella of Croy
married to Priincess Irmingard of Bavaria
married to Beatrix Wiegand
married to Prince Ferdinand zur Lippe-Weissenfeld
married to Pince Lukas of Auersperg
married to Henriette Gruse
married to Prince Pedro Henrique of Brazil, Prince of Orléans and Braganza
married to Baron Zdenko of Hoenning O’Carroll
married to Count Konstantin of Waldburg zu zeil and Trauchburg
married to Archduke Gottfried of Austria, Prince of Tuscany
married to Archduchess Theresa of Austria, Princess of Tuscany
- Maria Theresa
married to Count Thomas Kornis of Göncz-Ruszka
- Franz-Josef, as Pater Florian member of the Order of St. Benedict
married to Count Andreas of Kuefstein
married first (divorced) to Countess Beatrice zu Lodron-Laterano and Castelromano
married second to Tatiana Eames
- Maria Flavia
married to Baron Rudolf of Freyberg-Eisenberg
married to Countess Gudila of Plettenberg
married to Prince Alexander of Saxony
- Maria Theresa
The adalbertinian line
This line is descending from Prince Adalbert, the youngest son if King Ludwig I. His grandson is the ancestor of the present living mebers of these line
married to Countess Auguste of Seefried auf Buttenheim
married first (divorced) to Princess Maria Adelgunde of Hohenzollern
married second to Countess Helene of Khevenhüller-Metsch
from the first marriage
married to Ursula Möhlenkamp
married to Princess Anna zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg
married to Christian Dienst
married frist (divorced) to Marion Malkowsky
married second top Sandra Burckhardtfrom the second marriage:
married to Carmelo Milici
married to Count Alfred Hoyos, Baron of Stichsenstein