german Houses: The Princely House of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen

The Princely House of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen

House of Schwarzburg
The history of the family is from the mid-12th Century tangible. Earlier scholars attempted to derive a Frankish origin of the Schwarzburg . One in the 8 Century living Gundar is acoording to this not correct conception the ancestor of the family and a son of a Frankish king. Pope Gregory II. mentioned Gundhareus (Gundar) in the year 723 in a letter.   On the beetles Burger paintings  will this Gundaar is diplayed next to Sigerius and Sizzo this Gundar. Gundar to have been at Arnstadt the builder of the Käfernburg  and thus the history of the Schwarzburgs  have begun. Sigerius was after Reinhardsbrunenr chronic Sigerius was his son and Sizzo have lived according to historians opinion by 1000 .Among historians widely recognized is the common ancestry of the Schwarzburg and Kevernburger , where the ancestors are referred because of frequent name Sizzo as Sizzonen . The appeaqrance of the Sizzonen occurred at the beginning of the 11th Century in Thuringia. Initially, we speak historically from the House Kevernburg-Schwarzburg.  After separation, the Schwarzburg  is considered to be the ancestral home of the Schwarzburgs . As allodial the family possessed during its history, Ilmenau, Remda and Plaue . Under the rule of the Schwarzburgs were the fiefs Schwarzburg, Ehrenstein and Königsee . As a fief also existed of Bohemia Rudolstadt [8 ] , of Kurmainz special Hausen , of the Electorate of Saxony Frankenhausen, of Saxe- Weimar Arnstadt and of Saxe -Gotha, Ilm and Paulinzella . [9 ] There were also additional fief of Fulda, Hessen- Kassel.
Sizzo III. (* around 1080, 1160) is the first documented certified family member. He was named in documents as Count of Kevernburg (1141, 1143 and 1144). Also Sizzo III was. referred to as Count of Thuringia, Count of Längwitzgau and Count of Schwarzburg. The Count donated in1142 the otha monastery Georgenthal located soiuthern of Gotha and served as governor of Paulinzella. About the lineage Sizzos III. Various conjectures have been made. (1045 * 955), called the Hermit, cited in the literature is often an ancestor Gunther. The relationship can not be documented, although Gunther XXI on the grave stone of King Gunther. of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg (* 1304, † 1349) is shown. With the descendants Sizzos III. were formed out the separate counties Kevernburg and Black Castle.
Sizzo III . of Kevernburg was first mentioned in 1103 and called himself from 1123  Count of Schwarzburg. He is the common ancestor of the house Kevernburg-Schwarzburg . After the first mention of the headquarters Schwarzburg 1071 , it took over 100 years to the family members permanently bore the name of Schwarzburg . In the mid-12th Century the possession if Schwarzburgs consisted of the  Käfernburg with the area around Arnstadt, the Schwarzburg with the area of the Thuringian Forest and from the castle Rabenswalde at Wiehe with the area of the lower Unstrut and the Finne. In the generation after Sizzo III . with two sons pointed gradually to the divergence of the Schwarzburgs and the Kevernburger. The Schwarzburgs could enlarge their property, the Kevernburger became economically meaningless.Heinrich I. was the eldest son of Sizzo III. and had the Schwarzburg  with the associated villages and half of the city Ilm . His brother Günther II. had the Kevernburg (now Käfernburg ) and inherited after the death of Heinrich I. the County of Schwarzburg. Günther II. was the founder of the house Kevernburg. 1191 the county Hallermund came in the posession of the count , thereby reducing the side line Hallermund could arise with Ludolf II. With the death of Otto III. of Hallermund the line died out in 1412. The Schwarzenburger see only in the generation after Günther II. the beginning of their independence. His son, Heinrich II. was the heir to Schwarzburg and is considered the ancestor of the Counts and Fürsten of Schwarzburg. He supported the later King Philip of Swabia from the House of Hohenstaufen in its efforts to gain supremacy in the Holy Roman Empire. He also stood from 1228 to the side of the Emperor Friedrich II.  its crusade to Palestine. Heinrich II. was invested in gratitude for his services with Saalfeld and Ranis , which remained owned by the family until 1389. Count Heinrich II.  had  three sons:   Heinrich III . († 1259 ), Günther VII († 1274) and Albrecht II († 1278) . The latter resigned financially after the death of his father. The other sons shared the possessions among themselves. Heinrich III. got the Schwarzburg and Kranichfeld, Günther VII received Blankenburg . Heinrich III. used as the first Schwarzburger in a document from 1240, “the grace of God” as an additive , which can be seen , the Counts of Schwarzburg were free imperial estates .
Albert I.  a son of Günther III.  founded the käfernburgian sideline Rabenswalde. The Kevernburger developed in independent Family which had started during the reign of his grandfather Günther II. The possessions of Albert I. consisted of the castle Rabenswalde , the castle and the town of Wiehe and diverse fields . He ruled from Castle Rabenswalde and called himself Count of Rabenswalde and Count of Wiehe . The Count was in 1249 in a document called , in which he threw himself with other nobles of the reign of Margrave Heinrich of Meissen. The line Rabenswalde had only a short time and died  out with Friedrich 1312. The line Kevernburg existed only until 1385. After an interim period with the Landgrave of Thuringia, the Käfernburg  got in 1446 to the Schwarzburger relatives. The Käfernburg  remained with the Schwarzburgs and the building fell apart since the Thirty Years’ War.With Günther VII († 1274) first began the line of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg. After his brother Heinrich III . of Schwarzburg 1259 died without heirs, the line Schwarzburg- Blankenburg fell back together with the line Schwarzburg  Heinrich V († 1285) , son of Günther VII , then founded again the line Schwarzburg-Blankenburg. Günther IX . († 1289 ), the brother of Heinrich V.  founded in 1274 , the line Schwarzburg-Schwarzburg, which existed until 1397. The of the line Schwarzburg-Schwarzburg split of junior-lines   Schwarzburg- Wachsenburg (1327) and Schwarzburg-Leutenberg (1362) continued their existence .After the death of Count Günther VII. his son Heinrich V.  inherited the Greifenstein Castle and the town of Blankenburg Günther XXI ., the grandson of Heinrich V was King of the Holy Roman Empire and also a Count of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg. Heinrich V is said to have led pointless disputes , and cause of death as the plague was called.Günther X. (XVIII.) († 1354) was the founder of the line Schwarzburg- Wachsenburg and resided at the fortress Wachsenburg in Arnstadt. The Leuchtenburg receives Günther X. together with his brother Heinrich IX . around 1310 as a pledge and 1333 as property. The Count had nextto  Wachsenburg several residences including Kranichfeld. The family was forced to sell the Castle Wachsenburg in 1360 to the Landgrave of thuringa for finacial reasons. for financial reasons. The sidelines Wachsenburg was not longer continued in 1450.Heinrich XI . (XV ) († 1402) founded the line of Schwarzburg- Leutenberg . The castle and the town Leutenberg were acquired by purchase, and Leutenberg was the permanent residence. In 1564 the line became extinct and the property passed to Schwarzburg- Rudolstadt.

At the beginning of the 14th Century, the Schwarzburgs moved in the river basin of the straight to the north and also along the Saale river to the northeast ago and built this way on possessions . Even possession could be obtained in the northern Thuringia. The family acquired supplemented by an inheritance in this area in 1338 Schlotheim  and in 1340  Frankenhausen . At the end of the 14th Century emerged in northern Thuringia already almost the territories that later became the
Schwarzburg dominions Sondershausen and Frankenhausen corresponded. The areas of the lower and middle Saale Unstrut the Counts however, soon lost. In 1334 Rudolstadt came finally into the possession of the Schwarzburgs.
The counts of Schwarzburg also had ambitions in the Holy Roman Empire. Günther XXI . of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg, a grandson of Heinrich V., was on 30.01.1349 elected as a representative of the Bavarian Party as  anti-king to Karl  IV, from the house of Luxembourg.  On 06. February of the same year the coronation took place in Frankfurt. The previous Regent Ludwig IV. the Bavarian ruled until 1347. Wuith the Wittelsbach Family  the Schwarzburgs  had a very good relationship. For Ludwig the Bavarian had Günther XXI . from 1330 served as commander and diplomat. As a self-possession  the Count possessed by an inheritance , only about a quarter of Blankenburg and Saafeld. Later Arnstadt, Schlotheim and Frankenhausen were added. Günther XXI . was militarily unsuccessful and abandoned on 26.05.1349 in the Treaty of Eltville the kingship . He received financial compensation , but died shortly after the battle . His resting place the Count found as the only German king in the Emperor’s Dom St. Bartolomäus in Frankfurt. Furthermore, was at the beginning of the 14th Century Sieghard of Schwarzburg German Order Commander of Christburg, in the middle of the 14th Century Günther von Schwarzburg Commander of Mewe and the end of the 14th Century Albrecht von Schwarzburg Commander of Schwetz in Prussia.The Schwarzburgs were also actors in the Thuringian Counts war that took place 1342-1346. As a result of the Thuringian Count feud Thuringia was reclassified territorial and remained substantially unchanged until 1918. In the individual principalities itself , the changes were due to land subdivisions, however, significant. Hegemonic power after the war were the Wettin family , whose main opponents were the Counts of Orlamünde and the counts of Schwarzburg. In 1389, the Schwarzburgs were forced to sell Saalfeld to the House of Wettin . The rule Ranis with Kamsdorf and Goßwitz also went to the House of Wettin . Although the desire for power of the Schwarzburg a limit has been set, they stayed as well as the Reuß historical present .Under the reign of Günther XL. of Schwarzburg (1499-1552) from the line of Schwarzburg- Blankenburg  almost all Schwarzburg posessions where united. He united one by one all Schwarzburg  possessions with the exception of the rule Leutenberg.  After the death of his brother Heinrich XXXIV. he received in 1537 the rule Frankenhausen and after the death of his cousin Heinrich XXXII, in 1538 was added the Upper County. To represent its accumulated wealth and power  he had the Sondershauser castle torned down for the most part and put it in 1533, a Renaissance castle, today’s Old north, east and south wings of the Sondershauser castle. He introduced the Protestantism in its countries and participated in the Smalcald war against Emperor Karl V. in part . The Count drew considerable advantage from the political decline of the Saxon Ernestine . In feudal matters , he came into conflict with the Elector Johann Friedrich of Saxony. This was forced to occupy  the county Schwarzburg with troops and the impose a pillage on the City Sondershausen, so Count Günther had to flee . It was not until after the Battle of Miihlberg in 1547 he was able to return successfully. After the count had died in 1552 , four sons had the right to inheritance. The two adult brothers led the county Schwarzburg in cooperation . From 1571 the Upper County (cities Rudolstadt and Arnstadt) and the Lower County  (cities Sondershausen and Frankenhausen ) was separated . Two brothers ruled one of these territories. 1599 two newly tailored territories were then created, which remained virtually unchanged. The death of two childless brothers was the reason for the reallocation . Another brother died, but had heirs. The surviving brother  was Count Albert VII. He  was since 1571 Count of  Schwarzburg- Rudolstadt and was from 1599 regent of the county with newly set borders. There was also the county Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen whose area was also set in 1599.

The sons of Count Günther XL:

  • Günther XLI. (1529-1583), the Warlike (Bellicosus), Count of Schwarzburg-Arnstadt, childless
  • Johann Günther who is the ancestor of the line Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
  • Wilhelm I. (1534–1597), Count of  Schwarzburg-Frankenhausen, childless
  • Albrecht VII. wo is the ancestor of the line Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt

 

The County since 1697 Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen

 

Ancestor of this line is Count Johann Günther who after the death of his father reigned with his three brothers  the country initially jointly. He chose the city Sondershausenas his residence  according to which part of the country was called the Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen. In 1571 , the brothers decided to divide their county and thus Johann Günther received in the Lower County the the County Sondershausen. He signed the Formula of Concord of 1577 and the Book of Concord of 1580. After his brothers Günther XLI. of Schwarzburg- Arnstadt in 1583 and Wilhelm of Schwarzburg- Frankenhausen in 1597 died without descendants, the heirs of Johann Günther shared with his brother Albrecht VII of Schwarzburg- Rudolstadt, set in Stadtilmer agreement dated 21.11.1599  the Schwarzenburg  areas . The heirs of Johann Günther, the founder of the line Schwarzburg-Sondershausen  receiving areas around Sondershausen and Arnstadt with Gehren. When Count Johann Güntzher I. duied in 1586 his four sons where still minor and therefore they where under the guardianshiop of their uncles the Counts Johann VII. and Anton II. of Oldenburg. From 1593 the four Brothers reigned jointly. In their reign were the ravages of the Thirty Years’ War, under which the county, particularly Arnstadt and environment, had to suffer very through through billeting and other burdens of war.

 

  • Günther XLII., he died in 1543 unmarried as last of the brothers
  • Anton Heinrich, he died unmarried in 1638
  • Johann Güntzher II. died unmarried in 1631
  • Christian Günther I., he was as the only brother married to Countess Anna Sybille of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and therefore his sons continued the line

 

 

After the death of Count Christian Günther I. his sons divided the County among each other
  • Christian Günther II., he received in the Partition the Upper County with the Residencetown Arnstadt
  • Anton Günther I. he received in the Partition the Lower County, except the Offices his brother Ludwig Günther II. received
  • Ludwig Günther II., he received in the Partition the Offices Ebeleben, Schemberg and Keula and from the Office Clingen the town Greußen, Clingen, Großenehrich and Rohnstedtr. After the death of his brother Anton Günther I. he became guardian for Anton Günther’s sons.

 

When Count Johann Günther IV., Count of Arnstadt, the son of Count Christian Günther II. died in 1669 without heirs his uncle Coutn Günther Ludwig II. and the Counts Christian Wihelm and Anton Günther II.., sons of Count Anton Günther inherited the Upper County. After Count Günther Ludwig II. died in 1681 without leaving male Heirs the 3 brothers inherited also his Parts. Already in 1681 they had divied their Country and Anton Wihelm got the offices Eheleben, Schernberg, Keula and Arnstadt and started the Junior line Schwarzburg-Arnstedt. As his marriage with Princess Augusta Dorothea of Brunscick-Wolffenbüttel remained childless this Juniorline became with his death again extinct. On 03.09.1697 the 2 brothers where rasied by Emperor Leopold I. to the Rank of Princes of the Empire (Reichsfürstenstand). In 1713 the 2 brothers made an succession agreement in which in which the law of primogeniture and indivisibility of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen were determined. The contract was signed in 1719 by Emperor Karl VI. confirmed after also Fürst  Ludwig Friedrich I of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was in 1710 acceded to the Treaty. After the death of Fürst Anton Wilhelm Arnstedt fell back to Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. Christian Wilhelm dissolved increased from the suzerainty of Electoral Saxony and let the Renaissance castle in Sondershausen rebuilt in baroque style. Under Christian Wilhelm Sondershausen became a cultural center of the northern Thuringia. Fürst Christian Wilhelm was twice married. First he married in 1673 Countess Antionie Sibylle of Barby and Mühlingen who died young. In 1684 he made a second marriage to Princess Wilhelmine Christiane of Saxe-Weimar. From both marriages he has several children. After his death on 10.05.1721 he was succeeded by his oldest surviving son from his first marriage who became Fürst Günther XLIII. who had already taken over the reign from his father in 1720. Because of the succession Agreement from 1713 he s firstborn son became sole Heir and reigning Fürst. He was a  fair, mild and pious Regent. A new Church was built in Jechaburg  and in Sondershausen the Prince House. Fürst Günther XLIII.  was an enthusiastic hunter and had therefore also built the hunting lodge to the antics on the Hainleite for special Hausen, whose name he chose based on a poem of his half-sister, Christiane Wilhelmine. He died in 1740 unmarried and  without heirs and was therefore succeeded by his halbrother Heinrich who became Fürst Heinrich I. Whein in 1713 the  new succession agreement was amde according to which he became only an apanaged Prince he was therefore upset about his family, his siblings included and initially left the Principality.  He settled on a country estate in Biirgel at Jena and had good contacts with his uncle Duke Wilhelm Ernst of Saxe- Weimar. When he became reiging Fürst in 1740 he  resided in the castle Sondershausen and in the market town Reichelsheim in the Wetterau.  Although during his reign raged the Seven Years War  the population could expect little support. Heinrich I. was magnificent addictive and wasteful, for example , he had a diamond collection worth half a million dollars , so stirred his nickname . He was known as a passionate collector of ceremonial carriages, he had a total of 37 , including two French pomp bodies. One is the Golden Carriage  which is exhibited in Sondershausen castle. Fürst Heinrich I.  became the most controversial rulers of his dynasty . He was emotionally removed from his principality and his subjects and remained disproportionately outside the Principality. Since he had a strained relationship with his siblings, he bequeathed his Allodialvermögen the Duke of Saxe-Coburg. As he was unmarried his successor after his death in 1758 became his nephew Christian Günther, the son of his brother August. The new Fürst Christian Günther I. had to fight  with many obstacles in the first tiem after his succession to bring some abuses and to bear the burdens of the Seven Years War. Although he was only 22 years old, he overcame everything with unwearied zeal and vigorous power . He was regarded as a very economica l state and family man , but used the savings mainly to most important buildings. Thus he extanded his residence castle in Sondershausen. He let extend the north wing and added the west wing with the famous Blue Hall. In addition, he built the very extensive domain building in Allmenhausen and in Sondershausen, the so-called Possentower, the largest truss tower , on the antics and much more. Especially the Ebeleben lock him at heart , where he had spent his childhood. He had converted it extensively and had designed the adjoining park from scratch, so it was with its statues , cascades, fountains and flowers for a long time far and wide very famous. Fürst Christian Günther I. died in 1794 at the age of 59 years. He had been married to Princess Charlotte Wilhelmine of Anhalt-Bernburg and had the following children with her:
  • Günther Friedrich Carl, who succeeded his father as Fürst
  • Charlotte, married to Prince Christian of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
  • Günther Albrecht August, unmarried
  • Caroline Augstine Albertine, Deaconess at Herford
  •  Wilhelmine, married from 1795-1801 to Duke Ferdinand of Württemberg
  • Carl, married to Princess Güntherine of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
    • Karl Friedrich Christian Günther, died young
    • Luise Friederike Albertine Pauline, married to Wilhelm Albrecht von Götz
    • Karl, died young
    • Charlotte Amalie Friederike Albertine married to Baron Hans Heinrich von Jud

     


After the death of Fürst Chistian Günther in 1794 his oldest son Günther Friedrich Carl I.  took over the government in the Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and continued it in his mind. He often held court at the castle to Ebeleben, especially for hunting season , since he was a passionate patron of the hunt. His reign was full of breaks. The Holy Roman Empire of the German nation collapsed in 1806 and Napoleon Bonaparte entered the world stage.  Fürst Günther Friedrich Carl I. secured the sovereignty of his principality when he first 1807 joined the Confederation of the Rhine. In 1815  he moved about the Congress of Vienna to the German Confederation. After a period of relaxation , it even came in his principality to a cultural flowering , so he was quite popular .He  promoted the arts and led  in 1825 on the grounds of the Sonderhauser Castle as  a special theater erect. He is also considered the founder of the so-called Lohorchesters with its Lohkonzerten . These were particularly in the 19th Century very popular and attracted crowds of visitors from all over Germany to Sondershausen . This symphony , which it still is today , emerged from a six-piece brass band, which initially led the prince on the Sunday hunting with him. This tradition arose among Günther Friedrich Carl , that every Sunday for the citizens of Sondershausen free to serenade was held on the Lohplatz. In the 19th Century was the liberal bourgeoisie increasingly have a political voice , but the Fürst still ruled absolutely and was considered very conservative. He went on a no concessions , which made him increasingly unpopular . The Fürst was heavily criticized for its favoritism and finally forced by his son in a palace coup in 1835 (the so-called Ebelebener Revolution) to abdicate.After that, he spent the rest of his life  hunting lodge zum Possen where he died in 1837.
Fürst Günther Friedrich Carl I. married in Princess Caroline of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
They had 2 children:
  • Emilie, married to Fürst Leopold II. zur Lippe
  • Günther Friedrich Carl, who succeeded his father as Fürst
After the abdication of Fürst Günther Friedrich Carl I. on 19.08.1835 his only son succeeded him as Fürst Günther Friedrich Carl II.  A few years after he took office Fürst Günther Friedrioch Carl II. started  to reform the state. First, the principality joined in 1835  the German Zollverein . Furthermore on on 24.09.1841, for his 40th Birthday, he gave the Principality a new constitution. As a result of the new Constitution on  07.09.1843 a first parliament was Held in  Sondershausen. Nevertheless, it came in the revolution of 1848 also in Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen to riots . These were mainly in the two major cities of the Country Arnstadt and Sondershausen  but also in the smaller office cities Gehren and Ebeleben,  so Prussian (Loweer County) and Saxon-Thuringian (Upper County ) troops occupied the country and lead to the rest wanted. As consequence of the revolution occurred on 12.12.1849 a new , liberal- liberal constitution in force that suppressed the rights of the Fürst. However this did not last long , because she was already revised on 08.07. 1857 and  the old order was substantially restored . With increasing age, the views of the Fürst were more conservative. 1866 voted Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen in parliament against the demanded of Austria mobilization against Prussia and joined the North German Confederation in the sequence in . thus the military sovereignty was transferred to Prussia, although they previously de facto was Prussia. With the unification in 1871  the Principality of Schwarzburg- Sondershausen became  a federal state of the German Empire, at the  proclamation of  Emperor Wilhelm I.  in the hall of Mirrors at Versailles on 18.01.1871 Fürst Günther Friedrich Carl II. did not participate. During the reign of Fürst  Günther Friedrich Carl II. fals the  industrialization Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. A first railway line linking 1867 Arnstadt with Erfurt and 1869 they reached the capital Sondershausen, which was henceforth connected to Erfurt in the south and Nordhausen in the north. With the railroad and industrialization began in Schwarzburg-Sondershausen  a general upswing. The land slowly evolved from a poor agricultural country to an at least partially industrialized society , although it still was one of the most backward states of Thuringia. This is especially true for the northern part of the country , the so-called “Lower County “. During his reign there was construction activities . He left his residential palace in Sondershausen remodel in the then fashion taste of classicism. Due to financial constraints and the divorce of the royal couple ‘s plans were only partially implemented. On 17.07.1880 Fürst Günther Friedrich Carl II. handed over his office to his son Karl Günther due to his advanced age and eye disease. Fürst Günther Friedrich Carl II. was married tiwce. In 1827 he married Princess pf Schwarzburg-Rudolstdt who died already in 1833. In 1838 he married in second marriage Princess Mathilde zu Hohenlohe-Oehringen. This marriage was divorced in 1852.
He had the following children
from his first marriage:
  • Günther Friedrich Karl Alexander, died young
  • Elisabeth Caroline Louise, unmarried
  • Karl Günther, who succeeded him as Fürst
  • Leopold, unmarried
from his second marriage
  • Marie, unmarried
  • Hugo, unmarried
After Fürst Günther Friedrich Carl II. abdicated on 17.07.1880 because his eye disease his oldest surviving son succeeded him as Fürst Karl Günther. He was a passionate hunter and left the State Board to his Minister of State. In 1906 Fürst Karl Günther was seriously injured in a hunting accident and spent his last three years in the sick bed. In 18690 he had married Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenbrug but the marriage remained childless. Therefore when he died in As he left no children with his death on 28.03.1909 the line of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen became extinct in the male line as his brother ans half-brother had already died before him without leaving legitmate issue.
Because according to the succession agreements of 1713 and 1896 should pass the Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt upon termination of the Sondeshausener line, Fürst Günther Victor of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt reigned from from the death of Fürst Karl Günther in 1909 both principalities in personal union as Fürst of Schwarzburg.

 

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