german Houses: The Royal House of Württemberg

The Royal House of Württemberg
House of Württemberg

The house of Wurttemberg, from the derivation of the Stammburg lying on the Wirtemberg, gave his name the country of Wurttemberg, has its origins, according to recent researches, in the vicinity of the Salic imperial house. A long suspected lineage from Luxembourg, on the other hand, is rather unlikely.
Around 1080 the ancestors of today’s Württemberger, who were still called “Wirtemberger” because of the “acextral castle” on the Wirtemberg, came into the Stuttgart area. By marriage they became heirs of the house of Beutelsbach and built the castle Wirtemberg. Probably in the first half of the 13th century, the Wurtembergers acquired the Count Office. Their dominion, which at first only encompassed the immediate surroundings of the castle, grew steadily, especially through the purchase of impoverished houses such as those of Tubingen.
The earliest historical details on a Count of Württemberg relate to Ulrich I, Count of Württemberg, who ruled from 1241-1265. He served as marshal of Swabia and advocate of the town of Ulm, and had large possessions in the valleys of the Neckar and the Rems, and acquired the County of Urach in 1260. Under his sons, Ulrich II and Eberhard I, and their successors, the power of the family grew steadily.
The possessions of Ulrich  were the original castle of Württemberg, Cannstadt, Stuttgart, Waiblingen, Beutelsbach, Schorndorf, Waldhausen, Leonberg, Neckarems.  His successors over the centuries proved very skilled at enlarging and maintaining the patrimony, mostly through acquisitions (the only significant inheritance was Mömpelgard).  Ulrich I. acquired the county of Urach with Münsingen and Wittlingen His two  sons ruled jointly until the death without issue of one of them. Eberhard I acquired Beilstein, Backnang, Plochingen, Rosenfeld, Grüningen, Dornstetten, the county of Asberg, the lordship of Stauffen, parts of Nürtingen, the county of Calw, the lordship of Magenheim; he probably also acquired Marbach, Neuenburg and Göppingen. Ulrich III  acquired Markgröningen, Winnenden, the county of Aichelberg, Grötzingen, Vaihingen, Tübingen and part of Teck with Kirchheim.    Ulrich III’s two sons Eberhard II and Ulrich IV ruled jointly, but the demands of the younger one led to the Nürnberg treaty of 1351, whereby the two brothers promised not to further divide the territories, specified reciprocal reversion in case of default of male issue with compensation of an eventual female heir in cash, each side promising not to alienate, encumber or burden with debt the possessions, and both agreeing to jointly collect the income of the lands.  The Emperor ratified the treaty in 1361 and specified that in the case of extinction of male issue Eberhard II’s daughter Sophie would inherit.  In the end Ulrich IV died without heirs in 1366, leaving Eberhard II (1315-92)  as sole ruler.  Eberhard II’s rule lasted 48 years and was full of turmoil, but he greatly increased the standing of his house, made a number of good marriages (his son married a daughter of the Emperor, his daughter married the duke of Lorraine, and his grandson married the daughter of the duke of Milan).  He also   added Schönbuch, Böblingen, Herrenberg, Sindelfingen, Lauffen, Nagold Waldenbuch, Ebingen, Tuttlingen, the remainder of Calw, Teck, the county of Vaihingen, the lordship of Magenheim. Eberhard IV married the heiress of Mömpelgard.  During the joint rule of Ludwig and Ulrich Wildberg and Bulach were added, and after the partition the Urach line acquired Blaubeuren. His grandson Eberhard III (1364-1417) dilapidated some of the family’s wealth; but his son Eberhard IV (1388-1419) married Henriette de Montfaucon, heiress to the county of Mömpelgard (Montbéliard) along with the lordships of Brundrut, Granges, Etoban, Saulert, Clervel, Passavant and the overlordship of La Roche.
On 25.01.1442, the Treaty of Nürtingen between Ludwig I and his brother Ulrich V was made. This split Wurttemberg into two parts. The Stuttgart section under Ulrich V included the cities of Cannstatt, Göppingen, Marbach, Neuffen, Nürtingen, Schorndorf and Waiblingen; The cities of Balingen, Calw, Herrenberg, Münsingen, Tuttlingen and Tübingen belonged to the Ludwig I. section. After the death of the two counts, Henriette von Mömpelgard, Mömpelgard was first beaten to the Urache region in 1444.
With the Münsingen Treaty of 14.12.1482 and the Esslingen Treaty of 02.09.1492 the Count of Wurttemberg-Urach and later Duke Eberhard in the beard succeeded in repeating the partition of Württemberg. The childless Eberhard became the sole ruler of the reunited country. The successor was transferred to the acting Count of Württemberg-Stuttgart Eberhard VI. , Who was to govern the country together with a twelve-party committee, the so-called “honorable”, the representatives of the aristocratic and non-aristocratic estates in the country.

Counts of Württemberg
1143-1158 Ludwig I.
1158-1181 Ludwig II-
1181-1240 Hartmann I.
1294-1241 Ludwig III.
1241-1265 Ulrich I.
1265-1279 Ulrich II.
1279-1325 Eberhard I.
1325-1344 Ulrich III.
1344-1362 Ulrich IV.
1344-1392 Eberhard II.
1392-1417 Eberhard II.
1417-1419 Eberhard III.
1419-1442 Ludwig I.
1319-1442 Ulrich V.

Counts of Württemberg-Stuttgart
1442-1480  Ulrich V.
married first to Countess Margarethe of Kleve
married second to Princess Elisabeth of Bavaria
married third to Countess Margarethe of Savoy
1480-1482-Eberhard VI.
married to Princess Elisabeth of Brandenburg

Counts of Württemberg-Urach
1442-1450 Ludwig I.
married to Countess Palatine Mechthild
1450-1457 Ludwig II.
1457-1482 Eberhard V.

Counts of Württemberg (reunited)
1482-1495 Eberhard V. who in 1495 became Duke

Duchy of Württemberg
On 21..07.1495 Wurttemberg was raised in Worms by the Roman-German King Maximilian I. to a duchy. So Count Eberhard V. became the first duke of Württemberg. He was one of the most energits rulers that the County ever had and had founded aong others the Universitiy of Tübingen.  In the same year he  gave the first dignity to the duchy. After his death in 1496 and the coup d’état of the Wuerttemberg estates against Eberhard II in 1498, the first half of the 16th century was characterized by crises and military conflicts under Duke Ulrich. After tax increases came in 1514 to riots of the peasants (“poor Konrad”), which Ulrich blows bloody. In the same year, the Treaty of Tübingen was concluded, which is the most important Wuerttemberg constitutional document and should remain valid until 1806.
After Duke Ulrich attacked the imperial city of Reutlingen in 1519, he was expelled from Württemberg by the troops of the Swabian Confederation, under the leadership of his Bavarian brother-in-law, Duke Wilhelm IV. The country was placed under the rule of the Habsburgs by Emperor Karl V., so that Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, the later Romano-German king, was first of all Württemberg’s sovereign. It was not until 1534 that Ulrich succeeded, with the help of the Landgrave Philip I of Hesse, who succeeded Philip of Palatinate-Neuburg, and succeeded in regaining his country at the Battle of Lauffen. Nevertheless, according to the treaty of Kaaden, Ulrich remained dependent on the Habsburgs. After Ulrich’s return from exile, he introduced the Reformation in Württemberg from 1534 onwards. He was assisted by the reformers Ambrosius Blarer, Johannes Brenz and Erhard Schnepf. At first, the Württemberg Reformation was the attempt to mediate between the Zwinglian and the Lutheran orientation. With Blarer’s dismissal in 1538, however, the road was free for a purely Lutheran-shaped reformation of the princes, which was associated with the secularization of church property. Duke  Christoph continued the development of state structures, which had already begun under Eberhard I. Many rules and laws were developed under his rule. The Grand Churches of 1559, which codified and expanded all previous state and church regulations, are outstanding. After Christoph’s son, Duke Ludwig, died childless in 1593, the reign paseed over to  Friedrich I. from the jnior  line of Württemberg-Mömpelgard. His policy was to restore the privileges of honesty and to strengthen the nobility. Friedrich I.  and his mercantilist economic policies are clear examples of early absolutism. Under his master builder Heinrich Schickhardt, many buildings were built in Renaissance style.

In the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), Württemberg belonged to one of the regions most affected by the war (see also Seekrieg on Lake Constance 1632-1648). From 1628 the country was more or less under the control of foreign troops. By the restitution of Emperor Ferdinand II, Württemberg lost about a third of its territory. After the Battle of Nördlingen in 1634, when the Wurttemberg army had fought on the side of the defeated Swedes, plundering and incendiary cremations ensued in the country. Duke Eberhard III. Fled to exile in Strasbourg. In the later period the country was considerably depopulated by poverty, hunger and the plague epidemic in 1637. Württemberg, originally in 1618, had a population of 350,000, in 1648 harbored Württemberg after heavy losses of war, Pest and Landflucht only about 120,000 inhabitants.
The reconstruction and restoration of the economic and administrative structures of the country began with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, during which Wurttemberg’s envoy Johann Konrad Varnbüler negotiated the territorial restoration of the country in its old borders. Although these were strongly oriented to the pre-war situation, they once again strengthened the position of respectability. At the end of the 17th century Wurttemberg was drawn into the warlike disputes of the German Reich with France, the Palatinate Succession War, the fifth Austrian Turkish War, and the Spanish Succession War. In the west of the country there was greater devastation by the marauding troops of the French general Ezéchiel de Mélac (for example 1692 in the destruction of the castle and monastery facilities in Hirsau).
The reign of Duke Eberhard Ludwig, whose father died only nine months after his birth, was a strong contrast and a breeding ground for the emerging pietism of Württemberg.
This included, in particular, the magnificent building of Ludwigsburg Castle from 1704, where Eberhard Ludwig, with his influential long-time mistress Wilhelmine von Grävenitz, settled while his wife remained in Stuttgart. A provocation of the ruling circles and moral ideas was surely also the settlement of the Waldensians in Wurttemberg, expelled from France in 1700, and the transfer of the capital in 1724 to the then-often lavishly “Lumpenburg”, Ludwigsburg.
Successor to Eberhard Ludwig, whose only son and grandson died before him, was Karl Alexander, converted to the Catholic Church, from the junior-line  of Württemberg-Winnental in 1733.
Karl Alexander, who had already entered the imperial military service at the age of twelve, and had already been appointed Generalfildmyor at the age of thirty-three, had a very high financial demand due to his military engagement and his elaborate courtly style Joseph Süß Oppenheimer to his financial consultant with extensive decision-making powers in the economic and financial policy of the country. After the unexpected death of Karl Alexander on 12.03.1737, Oppenheimer, who was defamed as “Jud Süß”, was arrested the same day. The subsequent trial against him, in which the projected envy and hatred of the evangelical Wurttemberg upper class against Oppenheimer and the Catholic Duke, ended with his execution on 04.02. 1738 and had strongly antisemitic features.
On the death of Karl Alexander, his son and successor, Duke Carl Eugen, was only nine years old.
He grew up in Brussels and was educated from 1741 to his actual start in o0fice in 1744 at the court of Friedrich the Great in Potsdam and Berlin. From his start in office in 1744 to 1770, Carl Eugen was a strong absolutist despotic ruler who did not tolerate freedom of expression and opposition. The tyrannical nature of his government during this period was also reflected in the early works of Friedrich Schiller, born in Marbach in 1759. Politically, in the Seven Years’ War, Carl Eugen joined Habsburg Austria against Prussia. The foreign policy defeat at the end of the war in 1763, and the associated internal political resurrection of honorability, as well as the state fines, which had been shattered by its splendid government style, forced Carl Eugen to rethink. On the occasion of his 50th birthday in 1778, he himself proclaimed the new beginning and the repentance. Disarmament of the army, foreign policy restraint and the return of state expenditure, on the one hand, and the promotion of education and culture, on the other hand, were the cornerstones of the second part of his reign until his death in 1793. The people still reverenced in this country in morganatic marriage married to his second wife, Franziska von Hohenheim.
After his death, his two brothers, Ludwig Eugen and Friedrich Eugen, ruled the country each for two years and then Fridrich Eugen’s so Friedrich II. succeeded. Because he and his siblings had been raised in the protestant faith of their mother he was the first protestand Duke since 1733.
The peace of Luneville of 1801 had confirmed the loss of territories to France and left the matter of compensation to a delegation of the imperial Diet (a Reichsdeputation); this delegation’s final resolution (Reichsdeputationshauptschluss) of 1803 gave Württemberg a number of territories in Germany as compensation: the priory of Ellwangen, the abbey of Zwiefalten, the chapter of Comburg and Obersternfeld, the convents of Schönthal, Rottenmünster, Heilgenkreuzthal, Margarethenhausen, and the imperial cities of Weil, Reutlingen, Esslingen, Rottweil, Giengen, Aalen, Hall, Gmünd and Heilbronn.  The duke was also raised to the rank of Elector, by an imperial diploma of August 24, 1803.  On November 19, 1805 the elector of Württemberg annexed all the estates belonging to the imperial knights, the Teutonic order and the order of Malta that were within his territories.   In the war that broke out between France and Austria in 1805 the elector sided with France and was richly rewarded.  The peace of Pressburg of December 26, 1805 gave him the county of Hohenberg, the landgraviate of Nellenburg, the Vogtei of Altdorf, the cities of Ehingen, Munderkingen, Riedlingen, Mengen and Saulgau, and the county of Bondorf belonging to the order of Malta.  These new possessions were not united to the duchy-electorate, but designated as Neu-Württemberg and ruled directly by the elector.

Dukes of Württemberg
1495-1496 Eberhard I.
married to Barbara Gonzaga of Mantua
1496-1498 Eberhard II.
married to Princess Elisabeth of Brandenburg
1498-1550 Ulrich
married to Princess Sbine of Bavaria
1550-1568 Christoph
married to Princess Anna Maria of Brandenburg
1568-15936 Ludwig
married first to Princess Dorothea Urswula of Baden-Durlach
married second to Countess Platine Ursula of Veldenz
1593-1608 Friedrich I.
married to Princess Sibylla of Anhalt
1608-1628 Johann Friedrich
married to Princess Barbara Sophie of Brandenburg
1628-1674 Eberhard III:
married first to Countess Anna Katharina of Salm-Kyrburg
married scond to Countess Maria Dorothea Sophie of Oettingen
1674-1677 Wilhelm Ludwig
married to Princess Magdalena Sibylla of Hesse-Darmstadt
1677-1733 Eberhard Ludwig
married to Princess Jphanna Elisabeth of Baden-Durlach
1733-1737 Karl Alexander
married to Princess Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis
1737-1793 Carl Eugen

married first (separated) Princess Elisabeth Friederike Sopbhie Dorothe of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
married second (morgantaic) Franziska of Leutrum, created Countess of Hohenheim
1793-1795 Ludwig Eugen
marrid to Countess Sophie of Beichlingen
1795-1797 Friedrich Eugen
martried to Princess Friederike Sophie Dorothee of Brandenburg-Schwedt
1797-1803 Friedrich II. , who in 1803 became Elector

Electors of Württemberg
1803-1806 Friedrich, who in 1806 became King of Württemberg

Kingdom of Württemberg
On 01.01. 1806 Friedrich assumed the title of King, abrogated the constitution and united old and new Württemberg. Subsequently, he placed the property of the church under the control of the kingdom, whose boundaries were also greatly extended by the process of the mediatisation. In 1806 he joined the Confederation of the Rhine and received further additions of territory with 160,000 inhabitants. Later, by the Peace of Vienna of October 1809, about 110,000 more people came under his rule. In return for these favours, Friedrich joined French Emperor Napoleon I in his campaigns against Prussia, Austria and Russia. Of his 16,000 subjects who marched to Moscow, only a few hundred returned. After the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, King Friedrich I. deserted the French Emperor, and made a treaty with Metternich at Fulda in November 1813 where he secured the confirmation of his royal title and of his recent acquisitions of territory, while his troops marched with those of the allies into France. In 1815, the King joined the German Confederation, but the Congress of Vienna made no change to the extent of his lands. In the same year, he laid before the representatives of his people the outline of a new constitution, but they rejected it, and in the midst of the commotion the King died on 30.10.1816.

After much discussion the new King Wilhelm I. granted a new constitution in September 1819. Together with his wife, Queen Katherina, a daughter of the Russian Tsar Paul I, Wilhelm’s policy in his first years of government was strongly aimed at alleviating the economic distress of the wider populations. Katharina, who died on 09.01,1819 at the age of only 30 years, devoted herself with great commitment to social welfare. The founding of the Katharinenstift as a girls’ school, the Katharinenhospital, the Württembergische Landessparkasse, the University of Hohenheim and other institutions go back to them. At the time of his office, Wilhelm I. issued an amnesty and carried out a comprehensive administrative reform on the basis of the new modern constitution of 25.09.1819. The absolutist dictatorship of Friedrich I. was not, however, replaced by the dualism between the regent and the provinces, which had been transmitted from the duchy of Wurttemberg. Instead, the new constitution was based on constitutionalism, which supplemented the monarch’s rule by the constitutional rights of elected representatives. The Constitution thus became a staple between the old and new parts of the country. The opposition in the old world practically dissolved itself. A bourgeois opposition of liberal orientation emerged.Important components of the reorganization of the administration, which were implemented in connection with the new constitution, were the municipal self-administration and the separation of the executive and the judiciary. The administration has been streamlined and made more transparent. The officials committed to the state and the king quickly developed into a kind of state, and thus to a political class that supported the government. connection with Russia. In 1776 his aunt Sophie Dorothee was married to the Russian heir to the throne, later Tsar Paul. In 1818 Wilhelm’s own marriage with her daughter Katharina was used to strengthen these ties. After Katharina had already died in 1819, Wilhelm pursued the foreign policy developed together with her throughout his reign. So it was only logical that his son and heir to the throne, Karl married the Tsar’s daughter Olga on 13.07.1846 In the course of the reign of William I, the national debt amounted to almost 25 million florins,  almost four times the year. In the first 20 years of his reign, the finance ministers Weckherlin, Varnbüler and, above all, Herdegen were able to reduce these debts in a sustainable way so that tax reductions were made possible. A special focus of the king’s economic policy was the expansion of agriculture. Wilhelm I. pursued the goal of further ameliorating the state structures in Germany and limiting them to the five kingdoms of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Hanover, and Württemberg, as well as the Austrian empire.  He regarded Prussia and Austria as European powers. The four other German kingdoms were to pursue a common policy based on the unification of a third German power through a close alliance. Wilhelm sought the mediation of Baden, Hohenzollern, and the acquisition of Alsace. Means to achieve this goal, which has never been achieved, should be the strong family
His son and successor King Karl, contrary to the policy of his father, was an advocate of the formation of a German national state. When after the war of Prussia and Austria against Denmark in 1864 the tension between the allies of Prussia and Austria led to war in 1866, Bavaria, Wurttemberg, and Baden were on the side of Austria. On 24.07.1866, the Wurttemberg army was defeated by the Prussian troops only a few days before the armistice between Prussia and Austria at Tauberbischofsheim. Wuerttemberg concluded an armistice with Prussia on 01.08.1866. The war ended on August 23 with the Prague Peace, in which Wurttemberg had to recognize the North German Confederation, which had just been founded by Prussia, and had to pay for war indemnities to Prussia. Wurttemberg, as well as Bavaria and Baden, had previously had to conclude a covenant of protection and trusts, which in the first place had to be kept secret, in which the territorial integrity was guaranteed, but which gave the military superintendent to Prussia in the event of a war. After the end of the war, the nationalliberal German party was founded in Württemberg under the leadership of Julius Hölder, whose aim was the accession of Württemberg to the North German Confederation. It faced the democratic Wiirttemberg People’s Party, which had already emerged from the Liberal Progress Party in 1864. The Volksspartei, with its leading head, Karl Mayer, formed an alliance with conservatives and representatives of Catholicism, whose aim was to prevent a nation dominated by Prussia. In the Franco-Prussian War the Wurttemberg army was, according to the concluded alliance, subject to the Prussian Oberbefehl. During the war, Württemberg joined the North German Confederation on 25 November 1870 and the German Emperor in January 1871. The loss of political power in the country and the ruling house, which coincided with the entry into the Kaiserreich, was compensated by a strong reflection on the identity of Württemberg. In 1876 the government was reorganized. The core element of the reform was the establishment of a Ministry of State under Minister President Hermann von Mittnacht. In the following years King Karl retreated largely from the operational government business and, together with Queen Olga, devoted himself more to cultural and social tasks. Although he was the head of the Wuerttemberg Protestant Land Church, he placed great emphasis on the development of the rights of the Catholic minority. The Kingdom of Wurttemberg thus spared a cultural struggle as in Prussia. King Karl died on 06,.10.1891. Since he had no children, the reign passed to his nephew  Wilhelm   common son of his cousin  Friedrich his sister, Katharina. Wilhelm II. , who had retired from military service in 1882 at the age of thirty-eight, was very distant from the representation of Emperor Wilhelm II and many other rulers of the German states. Thus, unlike his predecessors, he did not enter into a marriage with one of the great European dynasties. When his first wife, Princess Marie zu Waldeck and Pyrmont died in 1882, he did not let them be buried in the crypt at Ludwigsburg Castle  but in the cemetery in Ludwigsburg. As a King he did not reside in the Stuttgart New Palace, but lived in the Wilhelmspalais, which was the size and decoration of a bourgeois mansion of the time. He renounced the monarch’s custom of God’s grace on his letterhead and wore bourgeois suits instead of uniforms. As a so-called “Bürgerkönig”, he was very popular among the population. Politically, he devoted himself to parliamentary majority. His administration was more like that of a president. He appointed the ministers according to the constitution, but largely left them and the parliament  political work. His personal focus was on promoting culture. This contributed decisively to the development of a cultural autonomy of Württemberg in the Federal Empire.
Because King Wihelm II. had no sons, it was foreseeable that the succession of the throne would pass from the Protestant line of the House of Wurttemberg to the Catholic side line with Duke Albrecht. This perspective alarmed the prominent Protestant liberal bourgeoisie of Württemberg, and there was a great deal of discussion about the future relationship between church and state. Thus the somewhat paradoxical situation prevailed that a Protestant dynasty ruled in Baden, a predominantly Catholic neighboring country, while a Catholic dynasty was to take the inheritance in the predominantly Protestant Wurttemberg
On 01.08.1914, the Kingdom of Wurttemberg, like the other states, agreed in the Federal Council to authorize the Reichskanzler Theobald of Bethmann Hollweg to declare war on France and Russia. King Wilhelm II. then signed the war call to his people on 02. august, although he did not share the general enthusiasm of the population. By 1918, there were 508,482 [] Wurttemberg participants, representing more than one-fifth of the population. 71,641  Wurttemberg soldiers fell victim to the war
In the course of the November revolution, the Wuerttemberg government resigned on 06.11.1918, to make way for a parliamentary government. When Secretary of State Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed the republic on 09. November from a window of the Reichstag in Berlin, rallies were also held in Stuttgart. Already in the morning demonstrators occupied the Wilhelmspalais. In the afternoon, a provisional government was formed in the Landtag from the two Socialist parties SPD and USPD under Wilhelm Blos. King Wilhelm II. then left Stuttgart on the evening of 09. November and moved to the hunting lodge of Bebenhausen. On the 30. November he declared his throne disdain and took the title of Duke of Wurttemberg.

Kings oif Württemberg
1806-1816 Friedrich I.
married first to Princess Auguste of Brunswick
married second to Charlotte Mathilde, Pricness Royal of Great Britain and Ireland
1816-1864 Wilhelm I.
married first (divorced) to Princess Charlotte Auguste of Bavaria
married second to Grand Duchess Katharina Pavlovna of Russia
married third to Duchess Pauline of Württemberg
1864-1891 Karl I.
married to Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaievna of Russia
1891-1918 Wilhelm II.
married first to Princess marie zu Waldeck and Pyrmont
married second to Princess Charlotte zu Schaumbrug-Lippe


The Royal House since the End of the  Monarchy
After his abdication King Wilhelm II. continued to lve at Bebenhqausen Castle where the provisional government granted him the right to grant his unrestricted right to dispose of his private property in addition to an annual pension of 200,000 marks and a lifelong living right already on 29.11.1918. A.lso the Castles Altshausen, Friedrichshafen and Monrepos remained in the Family-  He spent the last years in Bebenhausen and even more frequently in Friedrichshafen. After he died in Bebenhausen on 02,.10.1921, the funeral procession, according to his last wish, was routed around Stuttgart to Ludwigsburg-

After King Wilhelm II. died on 02.10.1921 Duke Albrecht from the catholic line became the new head of the Royal House. During the World War I, he had  commanded the German 4th Army and led them to victory in the Battle of the Ardennes in August 1914. Following this victory, the 4th Army saw action in the First Battle of the Marne before being transferred to Flanders in October, where Duke Albrecht commanded them during the Battle of the Yser. Duke Albrecht also commanded the German forces during the Second Battle of Ypres, where poison gas was used on a large scale for the first time. After the death of his father, Duke Philipp in 1917 he became heir presumptive. Duke Albrecht was married to Archduchess Margarethe Sophie of Austria, a sister of the Archduke-Heir Franz Ferdinand who had been killed in Sarajevo in 1914.  After the the Monarchy was abolished he took his residence at Altshausen Castle in Upper Swabia which remains in the poperty of the Royal Family and is now the Residence of the Head of the House. He lived there until his death in 1939. the first time. After the death of his father, Duke Philipp in 1917 he became heir presumptive. Duke Albrecht was married to Archduchess Margarethe Sophie of Austria, a sister of the Archduke-Heir Franz Ferdinand who had been killed in Sarajevo in 1914.
In 1939 Albrechts oldest son, Duke Philipp Albrecht became new head of the House.  During the World War I he fought in the Württemberg royal dragoon regiment No. 26 as a first lieutenant in the East and on the Western Front and in Serbia. After the November Revolution of 1918, he resigned as Major from active military service. Returned to the University of Tübingen, he finished his studies in 1925 with Dr. iurSince he had been brought up as the future heir to the throne, he remained a lifelong staunch monarchist. Because he rejecting the Nazi regime and was absent in elections in November 1933, hostility of the Nazi rulers moved against him His brother Carl Alexander, who had become a Benedictine monk Father Odo had to leave in 1933 for fear of reprisals Germany, emigrated to the U.S. in 1940 and engaged there in various charitable organizations. Also to the rescue of persecuted Jews, Father Odo had merit. When Philipp Albrecht in 1934 refused to host at his home, the former Crown Prince’s Palace Stuttgart swastika flag, he was forced to leave with his family in Stuttgart. He took refuge in Altshausen that was, since his father’s death in 1939, head of the House of Württemberg management of the extensive estates of his family and the business enterprise Court Chamber of the House Württemberg.
Duke Philipp Albrecht  married in 1923 Archduchess Helene of Austria, Princess of Tuscany but she died in 1924 a few weeks after giving birth to a daughter. A few years later in 1928 he married Helene’s sister Archduchess Rosa of Austria, Princess of Tuscany.
Because his oldest son Ludwig had to rennouce his dynastic rights in 1960 because of his unequal marriage after duke Philipps Albrechts death on 15.04.1975 his successor  as Head of the Royal House was his younger son Carl. Aftrer his tudies Duke Carl joined tha Family firm “Hofkammer of the House of Württtemberg” in which the Family posessions are managed.
The company manages approximately 5,500 acres of forest, about 2,000 acres of meadows and arable land, 50 acres of vineyards, 700 plots at home and abroad, forests in Canada and Austria, as well as corporate interests. In Monrepos in Ludwigsburg is the winery Duke of Württemberg. In addition, the maintenance of 70 ultural monuments of the House of Württemberg must be ensured. Duke Carl is also socially  and charitableengaged, including the German Red Cross in the Memorial Foundation of Baden-Württemberg, in the children suffering from cancer support organizations, the Foundation Free School of the Arts Foundation and the Foundation preventative youth services. In the Memorial Foundation, he was from the the founding in 1985 until 2002 Vice Chairman and from 2002 to 2008 Chairman . He is an honorary senator of the University of Tübingen and the University of Hohenheim and Chairman of the Association of Friends of the University of Tübingen and the University Foundation. Among other things, he is founder of the Ludwig-Uhlandprice for those who have rendered outstanding services to the regional studies. He is also Honorary Commodore of the Württemberg yacht clubs and promotes sailing talent there by the Duke Carl foundations. In 1960 he married Princess Diane of France, a daughter of the late Count  de Paris, the pretender to the french Throne. Duchess Diane is a successfull artist and sculptor. Her work has been shown in numerous exhibitions throughout the world. Duchess Diane is the founder of two foundations, the German Duchess Diane of Württemberg, Princess of France Foundation for Youth Care and Protection of monuments and the French Foundation Les Enfants de la Vie (1989) for projects for children in the slums of the Third World. 

Heads of the Royal House since the End of the Monarchy
1918-1921 King Wilhelm II.
married first to Princess Marie zu Waldeck and Pyrmont
married second to Princess Charlotte zu Schaumbug-Lippe
1921-1939 Duke Albrecht
married to Archduchess Margarethe Sophie of Austria
1939-1975 Duke Philipp Albrecht
married first to Archduchess Helene of Austria, Princess of Tuscany
married second to Archduchess Rosa of Austria, Princess of Tuscany
since 1975 Duke Carl
married to Princess Diane of France

The present members of the Royal Family

All the memers fo the Royal Family have the Title Duke/Duchess of Württemberg and if in accordance with the House Law the style of Royal Highness (HRH).

The only surving line of the Royal House is descending from Duke Alexander, the youngest son of Duke Friedrich Eugen and brother of King Friedrich I. His sons Alexander married the french Princess Marie of Orléans and their only son Duke Philipp was raised oin the catholic faith of his mother.

  • Philipp Albrecht
    married first to Archduchess Helen of Austira, Princess of Tuscany
    married second to Archduchess Rosa of Austria, Princess of Tuscany

    • Marie Christine
      married to Prince Georg of Liechtenstein
    • Helene
      married to Margrave Federico Pallavicini
    • Ludwig, he rennouncd his succession rights in 1959/60
      married first divorced) to Baroness Adelheid of Bodmann
      married sdecond (divorced) to Angelika Kiessig

      • Christoph
        married to Iris CAren Metzger

        • Sylvie
        • Louis
      • Isabelle
      • Sybilla
      • Christiane
        married to Till Kitzing
    • Elisabeth
      married to Prince Antonio of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
    • Marie Thérèse, created Duchess of Montpensier by her former father-in-law
      married (divorced) to Prince Henri of France, Count of Clermont, now Count of Paris
    • Carl
      married to Princess Diane of France

      • Friedrich
        married to Princess Marie zu Wied

        • Wilhelm
        • Marie-Amélie
        • Sophie-Dorothee
      • Mathilde
        married to Fürst Erich of Waldburg zu Zeil and Trauchburg
      • Eberhard, renounced his rights at his marriage
        married to Desiree Copf

        • Alexander
      • Philipp
        married to Princess Marie Caroline of Bavaria, Duchess in Bavaria

        • Sophie
        • Pauline
        • Carl Theodor
        • Anna
        • Michael
          married to Julia Storz
        • Fleur
          married to Count Moritz of Goëß
      • Marie Antoinette

The junior line

  • Albrecht
    married to Princess Nadejda of Bulgaria

    • Ferdinand
    • Margarethe
      married to Vicomte François Luce de Chevigny
    • Eugen
      married (divorced) to Archduchess Alexandra of Austria, Princess of Tuscany
    • Alexander
    • Sophie
      married (divorced) to Antonio Manuel Rôxo de Ramos-Bandeira

The morgantic junior line Urach

This line is descending from Duke Wilhelm of Württemberg, one of the younger sons of Duke Freidrich eugen. He made a morgantic marriage to Burggravine ‘Wilhelmine Rhodis of Thunderfeld. The children of this marriage was given the Title Count/Countess of Württemberg. On 28.05.2867 their son Wilhelm was raised to the rank of a Duke of Urach with the stlye of Serene Highness. The present membes of the Family descend from his son Wilhelm.

The members of this line have the Titles Fürst/Fürstin of Urach, Count/Countes of Württemberg and if in accordance with the House Law the style of Serene Highness (HSH).

  • Wilhelm, Duke of Urach
    married first to Duchess Amalkie in Bavaria
    married second to Princess Wiltrud of Bavaria

    • Marie Gabriele
    • Elisabeth
      married to Prince Karl of Liechtenstein
    • Karola
    • Wilhelm, rennounced his rights to the Ducal Title and took the name Count of Württemberg
      married Elisabveth Theurer

      • Elisabeth
      • Marie Christine
    • Karl Gero, Duke of Urach
      married to Countess Gabriele of Waldburg zu Zeil and Trauchburg
    • Margarethe
    • Albrecht
      married first (divorced) to Rosemary Blackadder
      married second (divorced) to Ute Waldschmidt

      • Marie Gabriele
        married (divorced) to Hon Desmond Guiness
      • Peter
      • Manuela
        married to Sergius von Cube
    • Eberhard
      married to Princess Iniga of Thurn and Taxis

      • Amelie
        married to Curt-Hildebrand von Einsiedel
      • Elisabeth
      • Karl Anselm, Duke of Urach, he rennounced the ducal Title after his marriage
        married first (divorced) to Saskia Wüsthoff
        married second to Uta Maria Primer

        • Wilhelm
        • Maximilian
      • Wilhelm Albert, Duke of Urach
        married to Karen von Brauchitsch, adopted Countess Berghe von Trips

        • Karl Philipp
        • Alexandra
        • Louisa-Charlotte
      • Inigo
        married to Baroness Daniela of Bodman

        • Eberhard
        • Anselm
        • Amelie
    • Mechthilde
      married to Fürst Fridrich Karl zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst

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